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  • Apache Virtual Host documentation - Apache HTTP Server
    running on each IP address The fact that they are running on the same physical server is not apparent to the end user Apache was one of the first servers to support IP based virtual hosts right out of the box Versions 1 1 and later of Apache support both IP based and name based virtual hosts vhosts The latter variant of virtual hosts is sometimes also called host based or non IP virtual hosts Below is a list of documentation pages which explain all details of virtual host support in Apache version 1 3 and later Virtual Host Support Configuration directives See also mod vhost alias Name based virtual hosts IP based virtual hosts Virtual host examples File descriptor limits Mass virtual hosting Details of host matching Virtual Host Support Name based Virtual Hosts More than one web site per IP address IP based Virtual Hosts An IP address for each web site Virtual Host examples for common setups File Descriptor Limits or Too many log files Dynamically Configured Mass Virtual Hosting In Depth Discussion of Virtual Host Matching Configuration directives VirtualHost NameVirtualHost ServerName ServerAlias ServerPath If you are trying to debug your virtual host configuration you may find

    Original URL path: http://xserve.kw-berlin.de/manual/vhosts/ (2016-02-16)
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  • Authentication, Authorization and Access Control - Apache HTTP Server
    run With a default installation it s located at usr local apache2 bin htpasswd Next you ll need to configure the server to request a password and tell the server which users are allowed access You can do this either by editing the httpd conf file or using an htaccess file For example if you wish to protect the directory usr local apache htdocs secret you can use the following directives either placed in the file usr local apache htdocs secret htaccess or placed in httpd conf inside a Directory usr local apache apache htdocs secret section AuthType Basic AuthName Restricted Files Following line optional AuthBasicProvider file AuthUserFile usr local apache passwd passwords Require user rbowen Let s examine each of those directives individually The AuthType directive selects that method that is used to authenticate the user The most common method is Basic and this is the method implemented by mod auth basic It is important to be aware however that Basic authentication sends the password from the client to the server unencrypted This method should therefore not be used for highly sensitive data unless accompanied by mod ssl Apache supports one other authentication method AuthType Digest This method is implemented by mod auth digest and is much more secure Most recent browsers support Digest authentication The AuthName directive sets the Realm to be used in the authentication The realm serves two major functions First the client often presents this information to the user as part of the password dialog box Second it is used by the client to determine what password to send for a given authenticated area So for example once a client has authenticated in the Restricted Files area it will automatically retry the same password for any area on the same server that is marked with the Restricted Files Realm Therefore you can prevent a user from being prompted more than once for a password by letting multiple restricted areas share the same realm Of course for security reasons the client will always need to ask again for the password whenever the hostname of the server changes The AuthBasicProvider is in this case optional since file is the default value for this directive You ll need to use this directive if you are choosing a different source for authentication such as mod authn dbm or mod authn dbd The AuthUserFile directive sets the path to the password file that we just created with htpasswd If you have a large number of users it can be quite slow to search through a plain text file to authenticate the user on each request Apache also has the ability to store user information in fast database files The mod authn dbm module provides the AuthDBMUserFile directive These files can be created and manipulated with the dbmmanage program Many other types of authentication options are available from third party modules in the Apache Modules Database Finally the Require directive provides the authorization part of the process by setting the user

    Original URL path: http://xserve.kw-berlin.de/manual/howto/auth.html (2016-02-16)
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  • Apache Tutorial: Dynamic Content with CGI - Apache HTTP Server
    process your CGI program Reread the section on configuring Apache and try to find what you missed A message starting with Forbidden That means that there is a permissions problem Check the Apache error log and the section below on file permissions A message saying Internal Server Error If you check the Apache error log you will probably find that it says Premature end of script headers possibly along with an error message generated by your CGI program In this case you will want to check each of the below sections to see what might be preventing your CGI program from emitting the proper HTTP headers File permissions Remember that the server does not run as you That is when the server starts up it is running with the permissions of an unprivileged user usually nobody or www and so it will need extra permissions to execute files that are owned by you Usually the way to give a file sufficient permissions to be executed by nobody is to give everyone execute permission on the file chmod a x first pl Also if your program reads from or writes to any other files those files will need to have the correct permissions to permit this Path information and environment When you run a program from your command line you have certain information that is passed to the shell without you thinking about it For example you have a PATH which tells the shell where it can look for files that you reference When a program runs through the web server as a CGI program it may not have the same PATH Any programs that you invoke in your CGI program like sendmail for example will need to be specified by a full path so that the shell can find them when it attempts to execute your CGI program A common manifestation of this is the path to the script interpreter often perl indicated in the first line of your CGI program which will look something like usr bin perl Make sure that this is in fact the path to the interpreter In addition if your CGI program depends on other environment variables you will need to assure that those variables are passed by Apache Program errors Most of the time when a CGI program fails it s because of a problem with the program itself This is particularly true once you get the hang of this CGI stuff and no longer make the above two mistakes The first thing to do is to make sure that your program runs from the command line before testing it via the web server For example try cd usr local apache2 cgi bin first pl Do not call the perl interpreter The shell and Apache should find the interpreter using the path information on the first line of the script The first thing you see written by your program should be a set of HTTP headers including the Content Type followed by a blank

    Original URL path: http://xserve.kw-berlin.de/manual/howto/cgi.html (2016-02-16)
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  • Apache Tutorial: .htaccess files - Apache HTTP Server
    is requested Further note that Apache must look for htaccess files in all higher level directories in order to have a full complement of directives that it must apply See section on how directives are applied Thus if a file is requested out of a directory www htdocs example Apache must look for the following files htaccess www htaccess www htdocs htaccess www htdocs example htaccess And so for each file access out of that directory there are 4 additional file system accesses even if none of those files are present Note that this would only be the case if htaccess files were enabled for which is not usually the case The second consideration is one of security You are permitting users to modify server configuration which may result in changes over which you have no control Carefully consider whether you want to give your users this privilege Note also that giving users less privileges than they need will lead to additional technical support requests Make sure you clearly tell your users what level of privileges you have given them Specifying exactly what you have set AllowOverride to and pointing them to the relevant documentation will save yourself a lot of confusion later Note that it is completely equivalent to put a htaccess file in a directory www htdocs example containing a directive and to put that same directive in a Directory section Directory www htdocs example in your main server configuration htaccess file in www htdocs example Contents of htaccess file in www htdocs example AddType text example exm Section from your httpd conf file Directory www htdocs example AddType text example exm Directory However putting this configuration in your server configuration file will result in less of a performance hit as the configuration is loaded once when Apache starts rather than every time a file is requested The use of htaccess files can be disabled completely by setting the AllowOverride directive to none AllowOverride None How directives are applied The configuration directives found in a htaccess file are applied to the directory in which the htaccess file is found and to all subdirectories thereof However it is important to also remember that there may have been htaccess files in directories higher up Directives are applied in the order that they are found Therefore a htaccess file in a particular directory may override directives found in htaccess files found higher up in the directory tree And those in turn may have overridden directives found yet higher up or in the main server configuration file itself Example In the directory www htdocs example1 we have a htaccess file containing the following Options ExecCGI Note you must have AllowOverride Options in effect to permit the use of the Options directive in htaccess files In the directory www htdocs example1 example2 we have a htaccess file containing Options Includes Because of this second htaccess file in the directory www htdocs example1 example2 CGI execution is not permitted as only Options Includes is

    Original URL path: http://xserve.kw-berlin.de/manual/howto/htaccess.html (2016-02-16)
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  • Apache Tutorial: Introduction to Server Side Includes - Apache HTTP Server
    to modify that formatting config timefmt A B d Y Today is echo var DATE LOCAL Modification date of the file This document last modified flastmod file index html This element is also subject to timefmt format configurations Including the results of a CGI program This is one of the more common uses of SSI to output the results of a CGI program such as everybody s favorite a hit counter include virtual cgi bin counter pl Additional examples Following are some specific examples of things you can do in your HTML documents with SSI When was this document modified Earlier we mentioned that you could use SSI to inform the user when the document was most recently modified However the actual method for doing that was left somewhat in question The following code placed in your HTML document will put such a time stamp on your page Of course you will have to have SSI correctly enabled as discussed above config timefmt A B d Y This file last modified flastmod file ssi shtml Of course you will need to replace the ssi shtml with the actual name of the file that you re referring to This can be inconvenient if you re just looking for a generic piece of code that you can paste into any file so you probably want to use the LAST MODIFIED variable instead config timefmt D This file last modified echo var LAST MODIFIED For more details on the timefmt format go to your favorite search site and look for strftime The syntax is the same Including a standard footer If you are managing any site that is more than a few pages you may find that making changes to all those pages can be a real pain particularly if you are trying to maintain some kind of standard look across all those pages Using an include file for a header and or a footer can reduce the burden of these updates You just have to make one footer file and then include it into each page with the include SSI command The include element can determine what file to include with either the file attribute or the virtual attribute The file attribute is a file path relative to the current directory That means that it cannot be an absolute file path starting with nor can it contain as part of that path The virtual attribute is probably more useful and should specify a URL relative to the document being served It can start with a but must be on the same server as the file being served include virtual footer html I ll frequently combine the last two things putting a LAST MODIFIED directive inside a footer file to be included SSI directives can be contained in the included file and includes can be nested that is the included file can include another file and so on What else can I config In addition to being able to config the time format

    Original URL path: http://xserve.kw-berlin.de/manual/howto/ssi.html (2016-02-16)
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  • Per-user web directories - Apache HTTP Server
    relative to the home directory of the specified user Given this configuration UserDir public html the URL http example com rbowen file html will be translated to the file path home rbowen public html file html If a path is given starting with a slash a directory path will be constructed using that path plus the username specified Given this configuration UserDir var html the URL http example com rbowen file html will be translated to the file path var html rbowen file html If a path is provided which contains an asterisk a path is used in which the asterisk is replaced with the username Given this configuration UserDir var www docs the URL http example com rbowen file html will be translated to the file path var www rbowen docs file html Multiple directories or directory paths can also be set UserDir public html var html For the URL http example com rbowen file html Apache will search for rbowen If it isn t found Apache will search for rbowen in var html If found the above URL will then be translated to the file path var html rbowen file html Redirecting to external URLs The UserDir directive can be used to redirect user directory requests to external URLs UserDir http example org users The above example will redirect a request for http example com bob abc html to http example org users bob abc html Restricting what users are permitted to use this feature Using the syntax shown in the UserDir documentation you can restrict what users are permitted to use this functionality UserDir disabled root jro fish The configuration above will enable the feature for all users except for those listed in the disabled statement You can likewise disable the feature for all but a few

    Original URL path: http://xserve.kw-berlin.de/manual/howto/public_html.html (2016-02-16)
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  • Using Apache HTTP Server on Microsoft Windows - Apache HTTP Server
    all path names given This means that each directory which Apache evaluates from the drive root up to the directory leaf must have read list and traverse directory permissions If Apache2 2 is installed at C Program Files then the root directory Program Files and Apache2 2 must all be visible to Apache Apache for Windows contains the ability to load modules at runtime without recompiling the server If Apache is compiled normally it will install a number of optional modules in the Apache2 2 modules directory To activate these or other modules the new LoadModule directive must be used For example to activate the status module use the following in addition to the status activating directives in access conf LoadModule status module modules mod status so Information on creating loadable modules is also available Apache can also load ISAPI Internet Server Application Programming Interface extensions such as those used by Microsoft IIS and other Windows servers More information is available Note that Apache cannot load ISAPI Filters and ISAPI Handlers with some Microsoft feature extensions will not work When running CGI scripts the method Apache uses to find the interpreter for the script is configurable using the ScriptInterpreterSource directive Since it is often difficult to manage files with names like htaccess in Windows you may find it useful to change the name of this per directory configuration file using the AccessFilename directive Any errors during Apache startup are logged into the Windows event log when running on Windows NT This mechanism acts as a backup for those situations where Apache is not yet prepared to use the error log file You can review the Windows Applicat Event Log by using the Event Viewer e g Start Settings Control Panel Administrative Tools Event Viewer Running Apache as a Service You can install Apache as a service automatically during the installation If you chose to install for all users the installation will create an Apache service for you If you specify to install for yourself only you can manually register Apache as a service after the installation You have to be a member of the Administrators group for the service installation to succeed Apache comes with a utility called the Apache Service Monitor With it you can see and manage the state of all installed Apache services on any machine on your network To be able to manage an Apache service with the monitor you have to first install the service either automatically via the installation or manually You can install Apache as a Windows NT service as follows from the command prompt at the Apache bin subdirectory httpd exe k install If you need to specify the name of the service you want to install use the following command You have to do this if you have several different service installations of Apache on your computer httpd exe k install n MyServiceName If you need to have specifically named configuration files for different services you must use this httpd exe k install n MyServiceName f c files my conf If you use the first command without any special parameters except k install the service will be called Apache2 2 and the configuration will be assumed to be conf httpd conf Removing an Apache service is easy Just use httpd exe k uninstall The specific Apache service to be uninstalled can be specified by using httpd exe k uninstall n MyServiceName Normal starting restarting and shutting down of an Apache service is usually done via the Apache Service Monitor by using commands like NET START Apache2 2 and NET STOP Apache2 2 or via normal Windows service management Before starting Apache as a service by any means you should test the service s configuration file by using httpd exe n MyServiceName t You can control an Apache service by its command line switches too To start an installed Apache service you ll use this httpd exe k start To stop an Apache service via the command line switches use this httpd exe k stop or httpd exe k shutdown You can also restart a running service and force it to reread its configuration file by using httpd exe k restart By default all Apache services are registered to run as the system user the LocalSystem account The LocalSystem account has no privileges to your network via any Windows secured mechanism including the file system named pipes DCOM or secure RPC It has however wide privileges locally Never grant any network privileges to the LocalSystem account If you need Apache to be able to access network resources create a separate account for Apache as noted below It is recommended that users create a separate account for running Apache service s If you have to access network resources via Apache this is required Create a normal domain user account and be sure to memorize its password Grant the newly created user a privilege of Log on as a service and Act as part of the operating system On Windows NT 4 0 these privileges are granted via User Manager for Domains but on Windows 2000 and XP you probably want to use Group Policy for propagating these settings You can also manually set these via the Local Security Policy MMC snap in Confirm that the created account is a member of the Users group Grant the account read and execute RX rights to all document and script folders htdocs and cgi bin for example Grant the account change RWXD rights to the Apache logs directory Grant the account read and execute RX rights to the httpd exe binary executable It is usually a good practice to grant the user the Apache service runs as read and execute RX access to the whole Apache2 2 directory except the logs subdirectory where the user has to have at least change RWXD rights If you allow the account to log in as a user and as a service then you can log on with that account

    Original URL path: http://xserve.kw-berlin.de/manual/platform/windows.html (2016-02-16)
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  • Using Apache With Novell NetWare - Apache HTTP Server
    the web server These directives are only available while Apache is running Each of these directives must be preceded by the keyword APACHE2 RESTART Instructs Apache to terminate all running worker threads as they become idle reread the configuration file and restart each worker thread based on the new configuration VERSION Displays version information about the currently running instance of Apache MODULES Displays a list of loaded modules both built in and external DIRECTIVES Displays a list of all available directives SETTINGS Enables or disables the thread status display on the console When enabled the state of each running threads is displayed on the Apache console screen SHUTDOWN Terminates the running instance of the Apache web server HELP Describes each of the runtime directives By default these directives are issued against the instance of Apache running in the OS address space To issue a directive against a specific instance running in a protected address space include the p parameter along with the name of the address space For more information type apache2 Help on the command line Configuring Apache for NetWare Apache is configured by reading configuration files usually stored in the conf directory These are the same as files used to configure the Unix version but there are a few different directives for Apache on NetWare See the Apache documentation for all the available directives The main differences in Apache for NetWare are Because Apache for NetWare is multithreaded it does not use a separate process for each request as Apache does on some Unix implementations Instead there are only threads running a parent thread and multiple child or worker threads which handle the requests Therefore the process management directives are different MaxRequestsPerChild Like the Unix directive this controls how many requests a worker thread will serve before exiting The recommended default MaxRequestsPerChild 0 causes the thread to continue servicing request indefinitely It is recommended on NetWare unless there is some specific reason that this directive always remain set to 0 StartThreads This directive tells the server how many threads it should start initially The recommended default is StartThreads 50 MinSpareThreads This directive instructs the server to spawn additional worker threads if the number of idle threads ever falls below this value The recommended default is MinSpareThreads 10 MaxSpareThreads This directive instructs the server to begin terminating worker threads if the number of idle threads ever exceeds this value The recommended default is MaxSpareThreads 100 MaxThreads This directive limits the total number of work threads to a maximum value The recommended default is ThreadsPerChild 250 ThreadStackSize This directive tells the server what size of stack to use for the individual worker thread The recommended default is ThreadStackSize 65536 The directives that accept filenames as arguments must use NetWare filenames instead of Unix names However because Apache uses Unix style names internally forward slashes must be used rather than backslashes It is recommended that all rooted file paths begin with a volume name If omitted Apache will assume the SYS

    Original URL path: http://xserve.kw-berlin.de/manual/platform/netware.html (2016-02-16)
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