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  • GRIMM Aerosol offers Dust Monitors for indoors and outdoors.
    HELP CALIBRATON SERVICE CONTACT NEWSLETTER RENTAL OFFER GRIMM Your manufacturer of measurement instruments Company GRIMM GRIMM GRIMM AEROSOL PUB GRIMM PUBLICATIONS CERT GRIMM CERTIFICATES STAFF GRIMM THE PERSON EVENTS GRIMM UPCOMING EVENTS top 2015 GRIMM Aerosol Technik GmbH Co KG Dorfstr 9 83404 Ainring Germany Telefon 49 0 8654 578 0 Fax 49 0 8654 578 35 info grimm aerosol com GRIMM Wiki IAQ Products PM 2 5 PM 10

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  • GRIMM Aerosol offers Dust Monitors for indoors and outdoors.
    a new direction targeting the West European market and started developing dust Particle Measurement products designed for health and safety related fields Therefore different aerosol monitoring systems where developed for The Beginning In Western Europe initially clean room and filter testing industries were the primary customers in later years however a shift occurred towards air control in the pharmaceutical and cosmetics industries In Eastern Europe on the other hand most users were part of research institutes and when the Iron Curtain finally collapsed much of our customer base in the East European countries refocused on other topics Environmental and Occupational Designing OPTICAL MONITORING SYSTEMS in such a way that MASS could be monitored in real time Over the years many different instruments where developed from the small handheld units to compete monitoring stations approved by international test organizations such as US EPA etc Nano and Emission By today the activities in these two segments have not only resulted in a great variety of different products much more sensitive technologies dealing with NANO and EMISSION topics have been added and the applications relating to those technologies are on the rise Grimm Aerosol Technik GmbH Co KG Today GRIMM provides the most comprehensive AEROSOL product line on the market with an ever increasing international customer base This change in direction finally caused us to change our company name Effective 1999 we became GRIMM AEROSOL TECHNIK GmbH Co KG SALES AND SERVICE In the course of our 30 year history of our company a good and loyal dealer network has been developed with supports today worldwide our customers In addition also a service network for our equipment has been established and is operating to our expectations This support core has now expanded to over 30 countries and is annually updated with our newer

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  • GRIMM Aerosol offers Dust Monitors for indoors and outdoors.
    SERVICE FAQ GRIMM HELP CALIBRATON SERVICE CONTACT NEWSLETTER RENTAL OFFER Publications using GRIMM products Publications IAQ INDOOR AIR QUALITY DUST MONITORS ENVIRO ENVIROMENTAL DUST MONITORS NANO NANO PARTICLE MEASUREMENT SYSTEMS top 2015 GRIMM Aerosol Technik GmbH Co KG Dorfstr 9 83404 Ainring Germany Telefon 49 0 8654 578 0 Fax 49 0 8654 578 35 info grimm aerosol com GRIMM Wiki IAQ Products PM 2 5 PM 10 NANO Products

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  • GRIMM Aerosol offers Dust Monitors for indoors and outdoors.
    of in situ meteorological parameters and 5 day LAGRANTO back trajectories The influence of the brown cloud AOD 0 4 extending over Indo Gangetic Plains up to the Himalayan foothills has been evaluated by analysing the in situ concentrations of the ABC constituents This analysis revealed that brown cloud hot spots mainly influence the South Himalayas during the pre monsoon in the presence of very high levels of atmospheric compounds BC 1974 1 ngm 3 PM1 23 5 μgm 3 scattering coefficient 57 7Mm 1 coarse particles 0 64 cm 3 O3 69 2 ppbv respectively During this season 20 of the days were characterised by a strong brown cloud influence during the afternoon leading to a 5 fold increased in the BC and PM1 values in comparison with seasonal means Our investigations provide clear evidence that especially during the pre monsoon the southern side of the high Himalayan valleys represent a direct channel able to transport brown cloud pollutants up to 5000ma s l where the pristine atmospheric composition can be strongly influenced Aerosol optical properties and radiative forcing Title Aerosol optical properties and radiative forcing in the high Himalaya based on measurements at the Nepal Climate Observatory Author S Marcq P Laj J C Roger P Villani K Sellegri P Bonasoni et al Date of Publication 2010 Hyperlink Link Product 190 Abstract Intense anthropogenic emissions over the Indian sub continent lead to the formation of layers of particulate pollution that can be transported to the high altitude regions of the Himalaya Hindu Kush HKH Aerosol particles contain a substantial fraction of strongly 5 absorbing material including black carbon BC organic compounds OC and dust all of which can contribute to atmospheric warming in addition to greenhouse gases Using a 3 year record of continuous measurements of aerosol optical properties we present a time series of key climate relevant aerosol properties including the aerosol absorption ap and scattering sp coefficients as well as the single scattering albedo 10 w Results of this investigation show substantial seasonal variability of these properties with long range transport during the pre and post monsoon seasons and efficient precipitation scavenging of aerosol particles during the monsoon season The monthly averaged scattering coefficients range from 0 1Mm 1 monsoon to 20Mm 1 while the average absorption coefficients range from 0 5Mm 1 to 3 5Mm 1 Both have their 15 maximum values during the pre monsoon period April and reach a minimum during Monsoon July August This leads to w values from 0 86 pre monsoon to 0 79 monsoon seasons Significant diurnal variability due to valley wind circulation is also reported Using typical air mass trajectories encountered at the station and aerosol optical depth aod measurements we calculated the resulting direct local radiative 20 forcing due to aerosols We found that the presence of absorbing particulate material can locally induce an additional top of the atmosphere TOA forcing of 10 to 20Wm 2for the first atmospheric layer 500m above surface The TOA positive forcing depends on the presence of snow at the surface and takes place preferentially during episodes of regional pollution occurring on a very regular basis in the Himalayan valleys Warming of the first atmospheric layer is paralleled by a substantial decrease of the amount of radiation reaching the surface The surface forcing is estimated to range from 4 to 20Wm 2 for small scale regional pollution events and large scale pollution events respectively The calculated surface forcing is also very dependent on surface albedo with maximum values occurring over a snow covered surface Overall this work presents the first estimates of aerosol direct radiative forcing over the high Himalaya based on in situ aerosol measurements and results suggest a TOA forcing significantly greater than the IPCC reported values for green house gases Chemical composition of PM10 and PM1 at Himalayan Title Chemical composition of PM10 and PM1 at the high altitude Himalayan station Nepal Climate Observatory Pyramid NCO P 5079ma s l Author S Decesari M C Facchini C Carbone L Giulianelli et al Date of Publication 2010 Hyperlink External Link Product 190 Abstract We report chemical composition data for PM10 and PM1 from the Nepal Climate Observatory Pyramid NCO P the world s highest aerosol observatory located at 5079m a s l at the foothills of Mt Everest Despite its high altitude the average PM10 mass apportioned by the chemical analyses is of the order of 6 μgm 3 i e 10 μg scm with almost a half of this mass accounted for by organic matter elemental carbon EC and inorganic ions the rest being mineral dust Organic matter in particular accounted for by 2 0 μgm 3 i e 3 6 μg scm on a yearly basis and it is by far the major PM10 component beside mineral oxides Non negligible concentrations of EC were also observed 0 36 μg scm confirming that light absorbing aerosol produced from combustion sources can be efficiently transported up the altitudes of Himalayan glaciers The concentrations of carbonaceous and ionic aerosols follow a common time trend with a maximum in the premonsoon season a minimum during the monsoon and a slow recovery during the postmonsoon and dry seasons which is the same phenomenology observed for other Nepalese Himalayan sites in previous studies Such seasonal cycle can be explained by the seasonal variations of dry and moist convection and of wet scavenging processes characterizing the climate of north Indian subcontinent We document the effect of orographic transport of carbonaceous and sulphate particles upslope the Himalayas showing that the valley breeze circulation which is almost permanently active during the out of monsoon season greatly impacts the chemical composition of PM10 and PM1 in the high Himalayas and provides an efficient mechanism for bringing anthropogenic aerosols into the Asian upper troposphere 5000m a s l The concentrations of mineral dust are impacted to a smaller extent by valley breezes and follow a unique seasonal cycle which suggest multiple source areas in central and south west Asia

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  • GRIMM Aerosol offers Dust Monitors for indoors and outdoors.
    by the manufacturer Mass concentrations for OPC1 108 were 60 higher than for OPC1 109 and in case of OPC1 109 much lower than those measured with an impactor in the relevant size range or a TSP filter Using the C factor correction suggested by the manufacturer OPC1 109 underestimated mass concentrations by 21 impactor and by about 36 TSP filter which is in the range of comparability of co located different mass concentration methods Hitzenberger Berner Maenhaut Cafmeyer Schwarz Mueller et al 2004 Measured and predicted aerosol light scattering en Title Measured and predicted aerosol light scattering enhancement factors at the high alpine site Jungfraujoch Author R Fierz Schmidhauser P Zieger M Gysel L Kammermann P F DeCarlo U Baltensperger and E Weingartner Date of Publication 2010 Hyperlink Link Product 1108 Abstract Ambient relative humidity RH determines the water content of atmospheric aerosol particles and thus has an important influence on the amount of visible light scattered by particles The RH dependence of the particle light scattering coefficient sigma sp is therefore an important variable for climate forcing calculations We used a humidification system for a nephelometer which allows for the measurement of sigma sp at a defined RH in the range of 20 95 In this paper we present measurements of light scattering enhancement factors f RH Sigma sp RH Sigma sp dry from a 1 month campaign May 2008 at the high alpine site Jungfraujoch 3580ma s l Switzerland Measurements at the Jungfraujoch are representative for the lower free troposphere above Central Europe For this aerosol type hardly any information about the f RH is available so far At this site f RH 85 varied between 1 2 and 3 3 Measured f RH agreed well with f RH calculated with Mie theory using measurements of the size distribution chemical composition and hygroscopic diameter growth factors as input Good f RH predictions at RH 85 were also obtained with a simplifiedmodel which uses the Angström exponent of Sigma sp dry as input RH influences further intensive optical aerosol properties The backscatter fraction decreased by about 30 from 0 128 to 0 089 and the single scattering albedo increased on average by 0 05 at 85 RH compared to dry conditions These changes in sp backscatter fraction and single scattering albedo have a distinct impact on the radiative forcing of the Jungfraujoch aerosol Cloud processing of mineral dust Title Cloud processing of mineral dust direct comparison of cloud residual and clear sky particles during AMMA aircraft campaign in summer 2006 Author A Matsuki1 3 A Schwarzenboeck1 H Venzac1 P Laj1 S Crumeyrolle2 and L Gomes2 Date of Publication 2010 Hyperlink Link Product 1108 Abstract In order to gain insights into the characteristics of the mineral dust particles incorporated in the actual cloud droplets and the related cloud processing the French ATR 42 research aircraft equipped both with a counterflow virtual impactor CVI and community aerosol inlet was deployed in Niamey Niger 13 30 N 02 05 E in August 2006 within the framework of the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis AMMA project Cloud residual and clear sky particles were collected separately and analyzed individually using a transmission electron microscope TEM and a scanning electron microscope coupled with an energy dispersive X ray spectroscopy SEM EDX The analysis revealed interesting characteristics on the coarse dust particles Dp 1μm particularly those which likely had acted as CCN Traces of heterogeneously formed secondary sulfate chloride and nitrate were found on many dust particles though fraction of sulfate may be present in the form of gypsum as primary dust component These secondary species were particularly enhanced in clouds i e cloud processing The study illustrates that calcium rich particles assumed to be carbonates Calcite Dolomite contained the secondary species in significantly larger frequency and amount than the silicates Quartz Feldspar Mica Clay suggesting that they represent the most reactive fraction of the mineral dust A surprisingly large fraction of the Ca rich particles were already found in deliquesced form even in clear sky conditions most probably reflecting their extreme hygroscopicity resulting from their reaction with HNO3 gas Both silicate and Ca rich particles were found dominant among the supermicron cloud residues and they were supposed to be those previously activated as CCN It is highly probable that the observed formation of soluble materials enhanced their cloud nucleating abilities The Mobile Air Quality Studies MAQS Title The Mobile Air Quality Study MAQS an international project Author David A Groneberg Cristian Scutaru Mathias Lauks Masaya Takemura Tanja C Fischer Silvana Kölzow Date of Publication 2010 Hyperlink Link Product 1109 Abstract Due to an increasing awareness of the potential hazardousness of air pollutants new laws rules and guidelines have recently been implemented globally In this respect numerous studies have addressed traffic related exposure to particulate matter using stationary technology so far By contrast only few studies used the advanced technology of mobile exposure analysis The Mobile Air Quality Study MAQS addresses the issue of air pollutant exposure by combining advanced high granularity spatial temporal analysis with vehicle mounted person mounted and roadside sensors The MAQS platform will be used by international collaborators in order 1 to assess air pollutant exposure in relation to road structure 2 to assess air pollutant exposure in relation to traffic density 3 to assess air pollutant exposure in relation to weather conditions 4 to compare exposure within vehicles between front and back seat children positions and 5 to evaluate traffic zone exposure in relation to non traffic zone exposure Primarily the MAQS platform will focus on particulate matter With the establishment of advanced mobile analysis tools it is planed to extend the analysis to other pollutants including NO2 SO2 nanoparticles and ozone Road Dust Emissions from Paved Roads Measured Title Road Dust Emissions from Paved Roads Measured Using Different Mobile Systems Author Liisa Pirjola Christer Johansson Kaarle Kupiainen et al Date of Publication 2010 Hyperlink Link Product 1109 Abstract Very few real world measurements of road dust suspension have been performed to date This study compares two different techniques referred to as Sniffer and Emma to measure road dust emissions The main differences between the systems are the construction of the inlet different instruments for recording particulate matter PM levels and different loads on the wheel axes the weight of Sniffer was much higher than that of Emma Both systems showed substantial small scale variations of emission levels along the road likely depending on road surface conditions The variations observed correlated quite well and the discrepancies are likely a result of variations in dust load on the road surface perpendicular to the driving direction that cause variations in the measurements depending on slightly different paths driven by the two vehicles Both systems showed a substantial influence on the emission levels depending on the type of tire used The summer tire showed much lower suspension than the winter tires one nonstudded and one studded However the relative importance of the nonstudded versus studded tire was rather different For the ratio of studded nonstudded Emma shows higher values on all road sections compared with Sniffer Both techniques showed increased emission levels with increasing vehicle speed When the speed increased from 50 to 80 km hr 1 the relative concentrations increased by 30 170 depending on the tire type and dust load However for road sections that were very dirty Sniffer showed a much higher relative increase in the emission level with the nonstudded tire Sniffer s absolute concentrations were mostly higher than Emma s Possible reasons for the differences are discussed in the paper Both systems can be used for studying relative road dust emissions and for designing air quality management strategies Emission and dry deposition of accumulation mode Title Emission and dry deposition of accumulation mode particles in the Amazon Basin Author L Ahlm1 R Krejci1 E D Nilsson1 E M M artensson1 M Vogt1 and P Artaxo2 Date of Publication 2010 Hyperlink Link Product 1109 Abstract Size resolved vertical aerosol number fluxes of particles in the diameter range 0 25 2 5 μm were measured with the eddy covariance method from a 53 m high tower over the Amazon rain forest 60 km NNW of Manaus Brazil This study focuses on data measured during the relatively clean wet season but a shorter measurement period from the more polluted dry season is used as a comparison Size resolved net particle fluxes of the five lowest size bins representing 0 25 0 45 μm in diameter were in general dominated by deposition in more or less all wind sectors in the wet season This is an indication that the source of primary biogenic aerosol particles may be small in this particle size range Transfer velocities within this particle size range were observed to increase linearly with increasing friction velocity and increasing particle diameter In the diameter range 0 5 2 5 μm vertical particle fluxes were highly dependent on wind direction In wind sectors where anthropogenic influence was low net upward fluxes were observed However in wind sectors associated with higher anthropogenic influence deposition fluxes dominated The net upward fluxes were interpreted as a result of primary biogenic aerosol emission but deposition of anthropogenic particles seems to have masked this emission in wind sectors with higher anthropogenic influence The net emission fluxes were at maximum in the afternoon when the mixed layer is well developed and were best correlated with horizontal wind speed according to the equation log10 F 0 48 U 2 21 where F is the net emission number flux of 0 5 2 5 μm particles m 2 s 1 and U is the horizontal wind speed ms 1 at the top of the tower Black carbon measurements in the boundary layer Title Black carbon measurements in the boundary layer over western and northern Europe Author G R McMeeking1 T Hamburger2 D Liu1 M Flynn1 Date of Publication 2010 Hyperlink Link Product 1129 Abstract Europe is a densely populated region that is a significant global source of black carbon BC aerosol but there is a lack of information regarding the physical properties and spatial vertical distribution of rBC in the region We present the first aircraft observations of sub micron refractory BC rBC aerosol concentrations and physical properties measured by a single particle soot photometer SP2 in the lower troposphere over Europe The observations spanned a region roughly bounded by 50 to 60 N and from 15 Wto 30 E The measurements made between April and September 2008 showed that average rBC mass concentrations ranged from about 300 ngm 3 near urban areas to approximately 50 ngm 3 in remote continental regions lower than previous surface based measurements rBC represented between 0 5 and 3 of the sub micron aerosol mass Black carbon mass size distributions were log normally distributed and peaked at approximately 180 nm but shifted to smaller diameters 160 nm near source regions rBC was correlated with carbon monoxide CO but had different ratios to CO depending on location and air mass Light absorption coefficients were measured by particle soot absorption photometers on two separate aircraft and showed similar geographic patterns to rBC mass measured by the SP2 We summarize the rBC and light absorption measurements as a function of longitude and air mass age and also provide profiles of rBC mass concentrations and size distribution statistics Our results will help evaluate model predicted regional rBC concentrations and properties and determine regional and global climate impacts from rBC due to atmospheric heating and surface dimming Evaluation Of The Overall Particle Emission Reduct Title Evaluation Of The Overall Particle Emission Reduction Efficiencies Of Commercially Available Laser Printer Filters Author G Steiner D Wimmer G P Reischl E Peteln M Vojta Date of Publication 2009 Hyperlink Link Product 110x Abstract The performance of three commercially available filter systems improved DEXWET filter system Modular Professional 2000 DW Filter A and Filter B specially assigned for office machines was investigated Therefore the overall particle emissions evolving from a standard b w laser printer during a print job were investigated using a specially designed exposition test chamber with a volume of 0 4 m Measurements with and without mounted filter systems were performed Real Time Monitoring of Arsenic Cadmium Copper Title Real Time Monitoring of Arsenic Cadmium Copper and Lead Concentrations in Copper Smelter Particulates Using a TSI 8520 DustTrak a Haz Dust EPAM 5000 and a Grimm 1 109 Author J Freestone J McDonald J Mecham L Pahler R Larson Date of Publication 2009 Hyperlink http www aiha org education meetings conferences aihce archivedabstracts 2010abstracts Documents 2010 Aerosol Technology Abstracts pdf Product 1109 Abstract Exposure to arsenic cadmium copper and lead in workplace particulates is a potential health concern in the copper smelter where this study was conducted Standard sampling and analytical analysis of metals in particulates requires1 to 2 weeks before results are available The purpose of this study is to determine if the commercially available TSI 8520 DustTrak Haz Dust EPAM 5000 and Grimm 1 109 real time aerosol monitoring instruments in conjunction with specific correction factors provided by this study can provide acceptable approximations of arsenic cadmium copper and lead concentrations determined by standard sampling and analytical techniques Methods Copper smelter particulates were sampled during 16 sampling events using matched weight Mixed Cellulose Ester MCE filter cassettes while simultaneously monitoring particulates with a DustTrak a Haz Dust and a Grimm real time aerosol monitoring instrument Cassette filters were analyzed using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry ICP MS instrument to determine the concentrations of arsenic cadmium copper and lead Individual linear regressions with the yintercept forced to zero were developed to determine the relationship between measurements recorded by these three instruments and laboratory reported arsenic cadmium copper and lead concentrations Results Linear regressions yielded correction factors that can be applied to the three aerosol monitoring instrument readings to obtain relative concentrations for each of the four metals The coefficient of determination R2 values from the linear regressions were 0 70 to 0 94 for arsenic 0 67 to 0 82 for cadmium 0 70 to 0 91 for copper and 0 54 to 0 93 for lead Conclusions These results suggest that the TSI 8520 DustTrak the Haz Dust and the Grimm 1 109 instruments may provide real time data useful in providing estimates for concentrations of arsenic cadmium copper and lead in copper smelter particulates although percent compositions of the metals in these particulates seem to be variable These results suggest additional studies are needed for verification Chemistry and transport of pollution over the Gulf Title Chemistry and transport of pollution over the Gulf of Mexico and the Pacific spring 2006 INTEX B campaign overview and first results Author H B Singh W H Brune J H Crawford F Flocke and D J Jacob Date of Publication 2009 Hyperlink Link Product 1109 Abstract Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment B INTEX B was a major NASA Acronyms are provided in Appendix A led multi partner atmospheric field campaign completed in the spring of 2006 http cloud1 arc nasa gov intex b Its major objectives aimed at i investigating the extent and persistence of the outflow of pollution from Mexico ii understanding transport and evolution of Asian pollution and implications for air quality and climate across western North America and iii validating space borne observations of tropospheric composition INTEX B was performed in two phases In its first phase 1 21 March INTEX B operated as part of the MILAGRO campaign with a focus on observations over Mexico and the Gulf of Mexico In the second phase 17 April 15 May the main INTEX B focus was on trans Pacific Asian pollution transport Multiple airborne platforms carrying state of the art chemistry and radiation payloads were flown in concert with satellites and ground stations during the two phases of INTEX B Validation of Aura satellite instruments TES OMI MLS HIRDLS was a key objective within INTEX B Satellite products along with meteorological and 3 D chemical transport model forecasts were integrated into the flight planning process to allow targeted sampling of air parcels Inter comparisons were performed among and between aircraft payloads to quantify the accuracy of data and to create a unified data set Pollution plumes were sampled over the Gulf of Mexico and the Pacific several days after downwind transport from source regions Signatures of Asian pollution were routinely detected by INTEX B aircraft providing a valuable data set on gas and aerosol composition to test models and evaluate pathways of pollution transport and their impact on air quality and climate This overview provides details about campaign implementation and a context within which the present and future INTEX B MILAGRO publications can be understood Mexico City aerosol analysis during MILAGRO Title Mexico City aerosol analysis during MILAGRO using high resolution aerosol mass spectrometry at the urban supersite T0 Author A C Aiken1 2 D Salcedo3 M J Cubison2 J A Huffman1 2 P F DeCarlo2 4 I M Ulbrich1 2 et al Date of Publication 2009 Hyperlink Link Product 110x Abstract Submicron aerosol was analyzed during the MILAGRO field campaign in March 2006 at the T0 urban supersite in Mexico City with a High Resolution Time of Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer HR ToF AMS and complementary instrumentation Mass concentrations diurnal cycles and size distributions of inorganic and organic species are similar to results from the CENICA supersite in April 2003 with organic aerosol OA comprising about half of the fine PM mass Positive Matrix Factorization PMF analysis of the high resolution OA spectra identified three major components chemically reduced urban primary emissions hydrocarbon like OA HOA oxygenated OA OOA mostly secondary OA or SOA and biomass burning OA BBOA that correlates with levoglucosan and acetonitrile BBOA includes several very large plumes from regional fires and likely also some refuse burning A fourth OA component is a small local nitrogen containing reduced OA component LOA which accounts for 9 of the OA mass but one third of the organic nitrogen likely as amines OOA accounts for almost half of the OA on average consistent with previous observations OA apportionment results from PMF AMS are compared to the PM2 5 chemical mass balance of organic molecular markers CMB OMM from GC MS analysis of filters Results from both methods are overall consistent Both assign the major components of OA to primary urban biomass burning woodsmoke and secondary sources at similar magnitudes The 2006 Mexico City emissions inventory underestimates the urban primary PM2 5 emissions by a factor of 4 and it is 16 times lower than afternoon concentrations when secondary species are included Additionally the forest fire contribution is at least an order of magnitude larger than in the inventory Ionization for reducing particulate matter emissio Title Ionization for reducing particulate matter emissions from poultry houses Author M Cambra López A Winkel J van Harn N W M Ogink A J A Aarnink Date of Publication 2009 Hyperlink Link Product 1109 Abstract We evaluated the effect of ionization in reducing particulate and gaseous emissions in broiler houses and its effect on particle size distribution Furthermore we evaluated the performance of the tested ionization system and its influence on bird performance The experiment was done during two consecutive rearing cycles in a pilot scale broiler house with four identical rooms We measured concentrations of PM10 and PM2 5 airborne micro organisms ammonia and odor of the incoming and outgoing air Emissions were calculated by multiplying measured concentration difference of each pollutant by measured ventilation exchange rates Performance of the system was evaluated through quantifying ion concentration ozone production and ultrafine particle concentration Moreover we recorded bird weight gain consumption variables mortality exterior quality and foot pad lesions Overall measured mass emissions reductions were 36 for PM10 and 10 for PM2 5 Total mass was reduced less for PM2 5 because reduction efficiency decreased to the end of the growing period P 0 10 This coincided with increased particulate concentrations increased ventilation exchange rates and dust accumulation on surfaces Higher reduction efficiencies were observed in relation to increased particle size Ionization did not have a significant effect on micro organism ammonia or odor emissions or on bird performance Ionization proved to be a practical and effective technique for particulate reduction with minimal maintenance required for use in broiler houses It is recommended to evaluate the use of ionization in commercial broiler houses to validate these results Physical and Biochemical Properties of Airborne Title Physical and Biochemical Properties of Airborne Flour Particles Involved in Occupational Asthma Author MICHEL LAURIE RE PETER GORNER ISABELLE BOUCHEZ MAHIOUT et al Date of Publication 2008 Hyperlink Link Product 1105 Abstract Aerosol particles which deeply penetrate the human airways and which trigger baker s asthma manifestations are known to represent only a part of flour and of airborne particles found in bakeries They were a major focus of this study To this end aerosols were produced from different wheat and rye flours using an automatic generator designed for bronchial challenge Particles were characterized for their size distribution their ability to be deposited in the airways their protein content their histological composition and their reactivity with immunoglobulin E IgE present in sera from asthmatic bakers Like dust particles collected in the bakery the aerosols produced showed increased protein content but decreased IgE reactive protein content when compared to the corresponding bulk flours The sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis of these particles showed a predominance of endosperm gluten proteins Under scanning electron microscopy flour particles displayed various tissue fragments with entrapped large A starch and small B or C starch granules whereas aerosol particles appeared primarily as a mixture of the endosperm intracellular interstitial protein matrix and small B or C starch granules free or still associated These observations showed that aerosols supposed to penetrate deeply the airways mainly correspond to intracellular fragments of endosperm cells enriched in gluten proteins but with lower amount of allergens belonging to albumins or globulins Studies on aerosol properties during ICARB 2006 Title Studies on aerosol properties during ICARB 2006 campaign period at Hyderabat India using ground based measurements and satellite data Author Badarinath K V and Shailesh Kumar Kharol Date of Publication 2008 Hyperlink Link Product 1108 Abstract Continuous and campaign based aerosol field measurements are essential in understanding fundamental atmospheric aerosol processes and for evaluating their effect on global climate environment and human life Synchronous measurements of Aerosol Optical Depth AOD Black Carbon BC aerosol mass concentration and aerosol particle size distribution were carried out during the campaign period at tropical urban regions of Hyderabad India Daily satellite datasets of DMSP OLS were processed for night time forest fires over the Indian region in order to understand the additional sources forest fires of aerosol The higher values in black carbon aerosol mass concentration and aerosol optical depth correlated well with forest fires occurring over the region Ozone Monitoring Instrument OMI aerosol index AI variations showed absorbing aerosols over the region and correlated with ground measurements Comparison of the TSI Model 8520 and 1 108 Title Comparison of the TSI Model 8520 and Grimm Series 1 108 Portable Aerosol Instruments Used to Monitor Particulate Matter in an Iron Foundry Author Yu Hsiang Cheng Date of Publication 2008 Hyperlink Link Product 1108 Abstract This study uses two real time dust monitors the TSI Model 8520 DustTrak and Grimm Series 1 108 Aerosol Spectrometer to determine PM10 and PM2 5 levels simultaneously in an iron foundry The SA Model 241 Dichotomous Sampler was used as a reference gravimetric method for comparing the measurement results obtained by these direct reading instruments The response to PM levels from DustTrak is higher than that of the Aerosol Spectrometer The DustTrak provides an overestimation PM levels and PM levels measured by an Aerosol Spectrometer are lower than actual concentrations Calibration factors of the DustTrak and Aerosol Spectrometer are 0 74 and 1 33 respectively when used to measure particulate matter at an iron foundry Based on measurement results the DustTrak provides a lower overestimation of PM10 levels than PM2 5 levels that is the response of the DustTrak increases as particle size decreases In addition measurement results suggest that the Aerosol Spectrometer provides precise measurements of PM10 and PM2 5 and measurement accuracy compared with the reference gravimetric method can be improved through a calibration factor Real time measurements of fine ultrafine sulfate Title Real time measurements of fine ultrafine sulfate aerosols in the Arctic atmosphere during summertime Insights to Cloud Condensation Nuclei CCN sources Author Jean SCIARE Roland Sarda Estève Date of Publication 2008 Hyperlink Link Product 1108 Abstract Inhalable and Respirable Dust Title Inhalable and Respirable Dust Author Linnainmaa Markku Laitinen Juha Leskinen Ari Sippula Olli and Kalliokoski Pentti Date of Publication 2008 Hyperlink Link Product 1105 Abstract The performance of four sampling devices for inhalable dust and three devices for respirable dust was tested with different kinds of dusts in the laboratory and in the field The IOM sampler was chosen as the reference method for inhalable dust and the IOM sampler provided with the porous plastic foam media was used as the reference method for respirable dust The other tested instruments were the Button sampler the optical Grimm aerosol monitor and the Dekati two stage cascade impactor with cutoff sizes of 10 and 4 μm The study confirmed the applicability of the IOM and Button samplers The newfoam product followed the respirable criteria well However the foam sampler was unstable for measuring inhalable dust probably due to its moisture absorption In addition high dust loads should be avoided with the foam sampler due to increase in filtering efficiency The concentrations of inhalable dust measured with the Button sampler the Grimm monitor and the impactor sampler were usually close to those measured with the reference sampler On the other hand impactor sampling yielded higher respirable dust concentrations than the reference method in the field which may have been caused by particle bounce high dust loads should be avoided while using the impactor The results also showed that the Grimm monitor enables real time dust concentration determinations that are accurate enough for routine monitoring of occupational exposure and for testing efficiency of control measures in workplaces Development of an Electrostatic Precipitator Title Development of an Electrostatic Precipitator for Off Line Particle Analysis Author J Dixkens H Fissan Date of Publication 2008 Hyperlink Link Product 5561 Abstract Due to the lake of in situ aerosol particle analysis systems aerosol samples are taken and analyzed off line For detailed analysis of particle properties such as shape morphology and composition off line operating analytical tools like light microscopes scanning electron microscopes SEM total reflection x ray fluorescence TXRF and so on are used The analysis must be performed on a representative sample of particles homogeneously deposited on a flat sample plate This avoids sample preparation steps which may change the sample In this paper we describe the design construction and evaluation of a continuous sampling device that deposits gasborne particles on an analytically suitable sample plate The collection ef ciency and the deposition pattern were optimized using a numerical model and experiments It turned out that representative samples appropriate for further analysis can be taken in the particle size range from 0 03 m m Design and performance of an optimized electrical Title Design and performance of an optimized electrical diffusion battery Author Date of Publication 2008 Hyperlink Link Product 5601 Abstract Standard aerosol instruments to measure particle size distributions in the ultrafine size range are large and heavy We built a small electrical diffusion battery which can be carried in a backpack and thusmakes size resolved short term personal aerosol exposition measurements possible The instrument was designed for maximal measurable particle size range and long maintenance intervals The optimum number of stages for the diffusion battery was found with a Monte Carlo simulation To assess the instrument s performance we compared size distributions measured with the electrical diffusion battery to those obtained with standard aerosol instruments the scanning mobility particle sizer and the fast mobility particle sizer of TSI Inc In general the readings of the electrical diffusion battery and those of standard instruments agree well to within 10 20 Performance of Vienna Type Differential Mobility Title Performance of Vienna Type Differential Mobility Analyzer at 1 2 20 Nanometer Author G P Reischel J M Mäkelä J Necid Date of Publication 2008 Hyperlink Link Product 55 Abstract The transfer functions of the so called Vienna type differential mobility analyzer DMA were studied experimentally at the size range of 1 2 20 nm following the procedure suggested by Stolzenburg 1988 Ph D Thesis For the study two identical DMAs were used as a tandem DMA TDMA arrangement to measure nanoparticles from a hot wire WO generator The approximate analytical formulae by Stolzenburg describing diffusion broadening of the DMA transfer function were observed to be valid with high accuracy from 20 nm down to 2 nm In the size range of 1 2 2 nm nominal mobility equivalent diameter small deviations of the shape of the TDMA output signal predicted by Stolzenburg were found AEROSOSLC IENCEA ND TECHNOLO2G7 6Y5 1 672 1997 0 1997 American Associationfor Aerosol Research Performance evaluation of three optical particle Title Performance evaluation of three optical particle counters with an efficient multimodal calibration method Author Michael Heim BenjaminJ Mullins Heinz Umhauer Gerhard Kasper Date of Publication 2008 Hyperlink Link Product 1109 Abstract The sizing accuracies of two widely used yet hitherto unevaluated optical particle counters OPCs Grimm Model 1 109 and Palas Model WELAS 2100 as well as one high resolution non commercial OPC were evaluated The measured data were compared to scattering intensity calculations based on Mie theory Additionally the counting efficiency for all three counters was measured as was the influence of coincidence effects for the OPC with the lowest manufacturer specified upper concentration limit Beside the traditional polystyrene latex calibration a little known very fast and precise multimodal calibration methodwas used which is based on the simultaneous generation of up to eight sharpmultiple charge modes from polydisperse di ethyl hexyl sebacate DEHS particles by electrical mobility classification Arctic smoke Title Arctic smoke aerosol characteristics during a record smoke event in the European Arctic and its radiative impact Author R Treffeisen P Tunved J Str om A Herber et al Date of Publication 2007 Hyperlink Link Product 1101 Abstract In early May 2006 a record high air pollution event was observed at Ny A lesund Spitsbergen An atypical weather pattern established a pathway for the rapid transport of biomass burning aerosols from agricultural fires in Eastern Europe to the Arctic Atmospheric stability was such that the smoke was constrained to low levels within 2 km of the surface during the transport A description of this smoke event in terms of transport and main aerosol characteristics can be found in Stohl et al 2007 This study puts emphasis on the radiative effect of the smoke The aerosol number size distribution was characterised by lognormal parameters as having an accumulation mode centered around 165 185 nm and almost 1 6 for geometric standard deviation of the mode Nucleation and small Aitken mode particles were almost completely suppressed within the smoke plume measured at Ny A lesund Chemical and microphysical aerosol information obtained at Mt Zeppelin 474ma s l was used to derive input parameters for a one dimensional radiation transfer model to explore the radiative effects of the smoke The daily mean heating rate calculated on 2 May 2006 for the average size distribution and measured chemical composition reached 0 55Kday 1 at 0 5 km altitude for the assumed external mixture of the aerosols but showing much higher heating rates for an internal mixture 1 7Kday 1 In comparison a case study for March 2000 showed that the local climatic effects due to Arctic haze using a regional climate model HIRHAM amounts to a maximum of 0 3Kday 1 of heating at 2 km altitude Treffeisen et al 2005 Challenge testing in the diagnosis of occupational Title Challenge testing in the diagnosis of occupational allergic conjunctivitis Author Tomasz Wittczak1 2 Anna Krakowiak1 2 Jolanta Walusiak1 2 Alicja Pas Wyroslak3 Monika Kowalczyk1 2 and Cezary Palczynski1 2 4 Date of Publication 2007 Hyperlink Link Product 1105 Abstract To perform cellular analysis of tear fluid before and after a specific challenge test with high molecular weight allergens in symptomatic subjects Sources size distribution and downwind grounding Title Sources size distribution and downwind grounding of aerosols from Mount Etna Author A G Allen 1 T A Mather 2 A J S McGonigle 3 A Aiuppa 4 P Delmelle et al Date of Publication 2006 Hyperlink Link Product 1108 Abstract The number concentrations and size distributions of aerosol particles 0 3 μm diameter were measured at the summit of Mount Etna and up to 10 km downwind from the degassing vents during July and August 2004 Aerosol number concentrations reached in excess of 9 106 L 1 at summit vents compared to 4 8 104 L 1 in background air Number concentrations of intermediate size particles were higher in emissions from the Northeast crater compared to other summit crater vents and chemical composition measurements showed that Northeast crater aerosols contained a higher mineral cation content compared to those from Voragine or Bocca Nuova attributed to Strombolian or gas puffing activity within the vent Downwind from the summit the airborne plume was located using zenith sky ultraviolet spectroscopy Simultaneous measurements indicated a coincidence of elevated ground level aerosol concentrations with overhead SO2 demonstrating rapid downward mixing of the plume onto the lower flanks of the volcano under certain meteorological conditions At downwind sites the ground level particle number concentrations were elevated in all size fractions notably in the 2 0 7 5 μm size range These findings are relevant for assessing human health hazard and suggest that aerosol size distribution measurements may aid volcanic risk management Evaluation of a High Efficiency Filter Bank System Title Evaluation of a High Efficiency Filter Bank System Author Stephen B Martin Jr Bryan R Beamer and Ernest S Moyer Date of Publication 2006 Hyperlink Link Product 1108 Abstract National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health NIOSH investigators evaluated filtration efficiencies at three U S Postal Service USPS facilities Ventilation and filtration systems VFSs had been installed after the 2001 bioterrorist attacks when the USPS unknowingly processed letters laden with B anthracis spores The new VFS units included high efficiency particulate air HEPA filters and were required by USPS contract specifications to provide an overall filtration efficiency of at least 99 97 for particles between 0 3 μm and 3 0 μ m The USPS evaluation involved a modification of methodology used to test total filtration system efficiency in agricultural tractor cab enclosures The modified sampling strategy not only proved effective for monitoring the total filtration system component of VFS performance but also distinguished between filtration systems performing to the high USPS performance criteria and those needing repair or replacement The results clearly showed the importance of choosing a pair of optical particle counters that have been closely matched immediately prior to testing The modified methodology is readily adaptable to any workplace wishing to evaluate air filtration systems including high efficiency systems Penetration of Ultrafine Particles and Ion Cluster Title Penetration of Ultrafine Particles and Ion Clusters Through Wire Screens by Ichitsubo et al Author M Heim B J Mullins and G Kasper Date of Publication 2006 Hyperlink Link Product 55 Abstract A recent paper by the authors Heim et al 2005 examined the filtration efficiency of nanoparticles in the 2 5 20 nm size range in an attempt to determine if thermal bounce occurs The work included a critical review of previous work including the work of Ichitsubo et al 1996 which was the only paper found by the authors which appeared to detect actual thermal rebound Experimental study enhanced Brownian coagulation Title Experimental study on enhanced Brownian coagulation of sodium compound aerosol

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    results quantitatively characterize the performance of the test DMAs in classifying sub 2 nm particles and can be readily used for DMA data inversion Comment on Penetration of Ultrafine Particles Title Comment on Penetration of Ultrafine Particles and Ion Clusters Through Wire Screens by Ichitsubo et al Author M Heim a B J Mullins a G Kasper Date of Publication 2008 Hyperlink Link Product 55100 Abstract Arecent paper by the authors Heim et al 2005 examined the filtration efficiency of nanoparticles in the 2 5 20 nm size range in an attempt to determine if thermal bounce occurs The work included a critical review of previous work including the work of Ichitsubo et al 1996 which was the only paper found by the authors which appeared to detect actual thermal rebound Further investigation of the results and methods used by Ichitsubo et al 1996 have allowed us to conclude with a high degree of certainty that the results shown can be attributed to the poor sizing performance of the DMA used rather than actual particle thermal bounce effects Performance of Vienna Type Differential Mobility Title Performance of Vienna Type Differential Mobility Analyzer at 1 2 20 Nanometer Author G P Reischl a J M Mäkelä b J Necid a Date of Publication 1997 Hyperlink Link Product 55 U Abstract The transfer functions of the so called Vienna type differential mobility analyzer DMA were studied experimentally at the size range of 1 2 20 nm following the procedure suggested by Stolzenburg 1988 Ph D Thesis For the study two identical DMAs were used as a tandem DMA TDMA arrangement to measure nanoparticles from a hot wire WO generator The approximate analytical formulae by Stolzenburg describing diffusion broadening of the DMA transfer function were observed to be valid with high accuracy from 20 nm down to 2 nm In the size range of 1 2 2 nm nominal mobility equivalent diameter small deviations of the shape of the TDMA output signal predicted by Stolzenburg were found AEROSOSLC IENCEA ND TECHNOLO2G7 6Y5 1 672 1997 0 1997 American Association for Aerosol Research Ultrafine particles over Eastern Australia Title Ultrafine particles over Eastern Australia an airborne survey Author WOLFGANG JUNKERMANN and JORG M HACKER2 1Karlsruhe Institute of Technology IMK IFU Garmisch Partenkirchen Germany 2School of the Environment Flinders University Adelaide Australia Date of Publication 2015 Hyperlink Link Abstract Ultrafine particles UFP in the atmosphere may have significant impacts on the regional water and radiation budgets through secondary effects on cloud microphysics Yet as these particles are invisible for current remote sensing techniques knowledge about their three dimensional distribution source strengths and budgets is limited Building on a 40 yr old Australia wide airborne survey which provides a reference case study of aerosol sources and budgets this study presents results from a new airborne survey over Eastern Australia northern New South Wales and Queensland Observations identified apparent changes in the number and distribution of major anthropogenic aerosol sources since the early 1970s which might relate

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    NEWSLETTER RENTAL OFFER Approvals world wide GRIMM has successfully achieved numerous PM10 and PM2 5 measurement approvals all over the world like EN12341 EN14907 US EPA GOST R MCERTS CMA etc Approvals and Certificates Click for download top 2015 GRIMM Aerosol Technik GmbH Co KG Dorfstr 9 83404 Ainring Germany Telefon 49 0 8654 578 0 Fax 49 0 8654 578 35 info grimm aerosol com GRIMM Wiki IAQ Products

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    Technical Director Achim Edfelder Europe Sales Manager Spectrometer Dipl Ing Andreas Jaksch Sales Manager Spectrometer Frank Tettich Nano Division Manager Jürgen Bley Production Manager Wolfgang Herz Technical Service Spectrometer Ralf Edelmann MSc IT Manager Alexander Schladitz Ph D Head of R D Siva Kumar M D Vice President Sales India Manuela Rauscher Head of the accounting dept We will be happy to support you with answers and recommendations for a

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