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  • evert fluid-technology
    opposite to previous picture now here the places of collisions become shifted towards right side in comparison with first row A That displacement of collision locations is much stronger than at previous process caused by delay of return of each partner right side and as all particles each left side move unhindered towards right side longer distances In addition these left side particles G H K and M etc marked blue fly into direction of the wall by normal molecular speed while all right side particles F and L etc marked green fly contrary direction only by reduced speed Flow by Heat At previous fictive experiments thus only a wall is moved towards left or right side and a flow of fluid is generated left side of the wall If at both cases the wall moves by same speed naturally the flows must show likely speeds finally according to the speed of the wall movement At picture 05 13 04 now both situations are shown once more The particle A flies by normal speed VN towards right into direction of the wall That wall B same times moves towards left so the particle becomes rejected Its way back C occurs with the accelerated speed VB German Beschleunigung acceleration This acceleration corresponds to the speed of the wall i e the flow got produced resulting of the speed difference at both ways This difference here is marked red because representing heat W German Wärme By right understanding heat is only an expression for the speed of molecular movement However again that term resp heat energy is used most detached of that real basis and even mixed up with the term of density Outer space e g is told rather cold However the particles there won t move slower but there are only few to hit onto a thermometer out there If any atom by any occurrence achieved fleeing speed and thus did leave the earth why should its flight through void become decelerated or even stopped down At previous processes however it s a clear statement a wall moving forward against air generates a flow by production of heat in the true sense of heat as the accelerated speed of molecular movements Flow by Cold The opposite process schematic is shown at this picture below the particle D flies with normal speed VN towards left to the wall Same time the wall E moves towards left After a collision the particle F flies back towards right side now however by reduced speed VR So a flow results from the difference of speeds at both ways That difference is marked green as cold K The movements of the wall thus results flowing of likely speeds at both cases which however show quite different characteristics Moving forward of the wall affects pressure the particles become accelerated beyond previous given speed and thus same time with the flow also heat comes up Opposite moving back of the wall produces a suction area of relative void the reflection of particles occur with delay The backward flight occurs slower than by the originally given speed so same time with flow also coldness comes up The common formula are based on density and average flow speed however don t pay attention to the different behaviour and function of density nor speed Thermodynamics Opposite to my statements in earlier chapters nevertheless are involves processes of thermodynamics however again not as cause but only as follow of molecular movements Previous considerations are based only at one moving wall without any other limitations so concerning an open system Results however are comparable within closed systems e g if that wall is represented by a piston moving to and fro within a cylinder Affecting pressure demands energy input and resulting are corresponding stronger kinetic energies in shape of accelerated particle movements and same time stronger static pressures e g at compression phase of piston machines At the following expansion phase the intermediately stored energy affects onto the back moving piston however by all experience rules of thermodynamics never the energy in total can be regained All times some rest of energy will remain respective escapes as heat loss into the environment That miserable efficiency show all technologies based on pressures no matter whether air compressor combustion or steam engines and all other applications with pressure Finally and unfortunately was deduced by that limited view any perpetuum mobile never ever could work Here however comes up the concrete question previous process of cooling should set free corresponding energy however how and where comes up a corresponding surplus of energy if the laws of energy constant still are valid Loss of Heat Previous pictures simplistic showed movements of particles in horizontal directions At picture 05 13 05 now again is shown some particles blue fall onto one spot of a wall from any directions Left side is drawn a suction wall S moving back to left side Right side is drawn a pressure wall D forward moving also towards left Also drawn are each ways towards the walls which occur with molecular speed VM In average the pressure affects only by component right angle towards the wall thus by previous normal speed VN which same time is likely to sound speed VS At the pressure wall D the particles light red are rejected with increased speed VB ray like into forward directions dark red That enlarged radius is marked red and practically represents the increased heat W In reality however not all particles come ahead that distance The wall plus the rejected particles wander steady into areas of particles yet not involved with correspondingly increased frequency of hits So there arises a dam up respective stronger static pressure in front of the wall This resistance rises by square of the wall speed until lastly an enormous energy input is necessary to overcome the sound barrier The generated heat thus is not able to clear up the area in front of the wall Opposite

    Original URL path: http://www.evert.de/ap0513e.htm (2016-02-09)
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  • evert fluid-technology
    At picture 06 04 03 housing wall grey again is shaped as round bended surface now however also rotor surface shows hyperbolic curvature again by tooth like steps Round edges resp bowl shapes are especially suitable for these vane teeth Suction sides practically stand cross to flow direction resp diagonal within space while each pressure side goes off smoothly into bended surface So within that concave hole teeth can stand one beside next In addition teeth grow off central round surface and at the other hand disappear into surface near outside border Suction sides of that rotor still are spiral bands analogue previous picture 06 04 01 arranged within shifted positions These bands can be long winded or can run more radial and more direct from inside towards outside Cross section all times shows that teeth like steps however flow runs diagonal and thus teeth appear more stretched into flow direction At this picture four positions are shown while rotor is turning Each suction side wanders from centre outward Following animation shows these four pictures and there becomes obvious how fluid is pulled outward only by suction One can clearly see teeth grow of centre and there at first makes fluid turning Afterward suction sides become wider and tilt towards outside so some more fluid will follow that wall Towards outside suction wall becomes less height and becomes correspondingly longer at larger radius finally disappearing completely within surface of rotor Thus at outlet will exist continuous flat flow all around generated only by suction supported by centrifugal forces So that technique will be optimum for many applications e g see Suction Helicopters of previous part Free Energy These suction vanes thus only use effect of back stepping wall for generating flow The energy input for driving the rotor is minimum because the rotor affects null pressure onto the fluid even no friction of fluid at rotor surface is to overcome So these suction blade teeth produce flow with minimum efforts Self acceleration comes up exclusively from normal chaotic molecular motions where only these particles can move wider distances which occasionally and momentary are hit into direction of back stepping wall Flow here thus comes up exclusively by particles of preferred certain direction towards suction side flying longer ahead until hindered by next collision These particles are rejected at wall some later and move back slower so as side effect again cooling comes up Finally fast flow at outlet shows less static pressure so from inside towards outside well exists some pressure potential difference Stronger static pressure at inlet thus pushes fluid from centre towards outside In addition fluid outside turns faster within space than inside so by that sense again an out turning potential vortex exists Here however that s not cause of acceleration but only side effect Centrifugal forces support that movement direction Centrifugal force by itself is for nothing however at first demanding according acceleration normally thus input by mechanic work Here however particles fly and accelerate by

    Original URL path: http://www.evert.de/ap0604e.htm (2016-02-09)
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  • evert fluid-technology
    the convergent inlet area F the flow moves slower than sound speed at the bottleneck G the flow moves by sound speed within the divergent area H the flow might be ultrasound fast Model of molecular Movements Picture 06 07 03 schematic shows the movement process of fluid particles within previous pipe Starting point is the action radius A of a molecule which moves from its actual position to any place at this circle within one time unit pushed there by a collision with average molecular speed Within gases these collisions and motions into any direction occur continuously At B are drawn two molecules red points within a pipe grey Representative for any motion here they are moving only up and down These particles thus wander from the centre to the wall there drawn once more and back This movement pattern represents resting fluid At C this molecular movement is overlaid by a motion ahead i e these particles wander within the pipe some forward towards right at zigzag tracks Naturally these particles still move into any direction however in general just that distance forward step by step The molecular speed is unchanged i e also the distances each time unit are unchanged Already that simple model obviously shows faster flows demand a smaller diameter if the density and temperature etc are unchanged In addition these particles hit less often towards the pipe wall and by inclined angle so these particles affect less static pressure aside towards the wall At D is shown the typical movement pattern of sound speed The fluid moves forward within the space by e g 333 m s VS 333 dotted line however the molecules fly at these zigzag ways by molecular speed of 470 m s VM 470 Naturally the particles demand even smaller cross sections and affect even less pressure aside Correspondingly stronger pressure of that flow exists towards the front side Cross Stroker and Free Flyer At E is drawn a pipe grey becoming more narrow and the movement pattern within representing a flow like at previous C At the diagonal pipe wall the molecules are rejected and return to the centre more steep every time more and more steep The particles still move by likely speed i e the collisions now occur more frequent by shorter intervals So the fluid there is more dense and the static pressure increases opposite to common formula The particles marked yellow here are called cross strokers However there must exist also an other movement pattern resulting the real experiences of a nozzle For example at F is shown the situation of particles which actually move nearby into longitudinal direction within the pipe If these particles collide the flow is not delayed These particles fall off the nozzle into following free space by a speed nearby as fast as molecular movements practically without resistance and without affecting pressure aside towards the pipe wall These particles are really valuable concerning the throughput because they leave gaps at

    Original URL path: http://www.evert.de/ap0607e.htm (2016-02-09)
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  • evert fluid-technology
    amount of particles within a wider volume same time stands for less pressure Instead of normal atmospheric pressure of e g 1000 millibar NP 1000 thus there exists less pressure theoretic a depression of only 917 millibar TP 917 At an earlier chapter 05 02 Three Times Suction Effect this process is described at picture 05 02 02 there by motions of horizontal direction into relative emptiness while here the analogue process runs into vertical direction In principle a first particle falls into the void as here the wing face makes the way free for a downward motion and comes back delayed for collision with next particle After each two strokes one next particle follows so the suction area spreads upward Upward and downward movements not only occur into vertical direction but by zigzag so with sound speed After each two movements that information more void moves upward i e by half of sound speed that thin out of density resp reduced pressure spreads upward VP 150 As here also flight speed VL is assumed by half sound speed resp these 150 m s border of thin out wanders diagonal backward upward That area of less density here is marked red Horizontal Wind Within that area of relative emptiness occur movements not only in vertical direction by longer distances between collisions but naturally also into horizontal direction the movements occur similar like schematic sketched at picture 05 04 05 If a particle at the border of the thinned out area occasionally is pushed towards right it also flies a longer distances until next collision e g at G correspondingly one sixth longer These particles return with delay to the next collision e g at H so all locations of collisions e g at I are shifted correspondingly towards right side A particle positioned at A has the chance for most collisions within the thin area until the rear end of the wing This particle will finally not be positioned at C based on its vertical falling but same time it will wander to K based on shifted collisions At this snapshot picture the thin out starts at A however the empty area wanders with the airplane towards left side so a particle momentary positioned at A indeed can fall into that rear end emptiness which reaches further back behind the plane The horizontal movements occur by conditions likely to previous vertical movements That s why the line F K shows an angle to the vertical line like wing surface to the horizontal level Thus the angle A C B is identical to the angle K F C That vertical triangle is one sixth by H 0 3 longer so also the distance C K is some longer than the height of the wing A particle at A wanders towards right side by these 0 35 m during these 12 milliseconds So the speed of that movement is some 0 03 m each millisecond resp 30 m s VM 30 Thus based on the suction effect upside of the slope part of the wing a wind of nearby 100 km h comes up Even no natural wind exists at point A there VW 0 an artificial flow comes up into contrary direction to the movement of wing at the rear end showing the strength of a remarkable storm At this picture at M is sketched the action radius of a resting particle e g far ahead of the wing which shows the distance of 0 3 length units until next collision KD 0 3 corresponding to the grid scale used here At N is sketched the corresponding action radius of a particle within the area of less density which is extended towards downside back marked as red sickle because there the distances until next collisions are 0 35 units KD 0 35 That graph is comparable with earlier used motion pattern or types for resting particles and particles within flows of different speeds Analogue here a particle within normal environment is marked as motion type O after collision positioned anywhere at the round circle A particle upside back of the wing is marked as motion type P after collision positioned anywhere at that curve reaching one sixth more towards right side down Real Wind At the diagonal border line towards the thinned out area thus the particles will accelerate from 0 to 100 km h immediately That s no problem as all particles at frontal collisions accelerate form 0 far above sound speed e g normal molecular speed of 470 m s 3600 s 1692 km h However that wind starts not just at the border line because any particle flying over the wing leaves a relative void above the front side of the wing In addition the horizontal movement naturally results a progressive thin out at the areas further in front of the wing At picture 05 04 06 left side that secondary thinned out area is marked dark red up to a vertical line near the apex of the wing A The speed of the wind VW is noted for six layers of air The speed is calculated by simple average of the particles ways before and behind the border line So resulting are flows increasing faster from upside down by e g 3 7 12 18 24 respective 30 m s Previous thin out into vertical direction produces wandering movements as all particles as a whole are moving some down However that s no real wind because every particle inevitably is rejected at the face of the wing None of these particles can leave that local area these vertical movements can not escape into the wing Opposite however the horizontal movement is a real wind as the particles wander out into areas behind the wing They are not rejected at a certain point like previous surface but will mutually collide finally some later Some particles probably escape in total from their original location because far behind still exists a relative void resp that wind is running further on far behind the wing One also should remember not only single particles are moving but real crowds are falling into inevitably existing empty bubbles see earlier chapters This horizontal flow component thus won t end upside of the rear end of the wing and that wind does not start at previous border line The thin out effect of that real wind spreads forward along the wing and far in front of the nose not only with half of sound speed as the vertical thin out spreads upwards That information collision partner wandering off rear end is obvious just for any particle whenever it s hit occasionally into rear end direction i e the information of new possible movement wanders ahead by speed of sound At this picture right side the speeds of air layers are show as shifted motions of particles which previously were positioned straight vertical line upside of the apex of the wing This graph corresponds to the black line resp the curve of upside animation resp at picture 05 04 03 From upside down the wind becomes faster and the particles wander off rear end of wing which same time moves towards left side at below layers much faster and wider than at layers further upside Suction of fast Flow Between neighbouring flows of different speed exists a suction effect described in details at earlier chapter 05 02 Three Times Suction Effects Between involved movement types e g also concerning the action radius respective type P at previous picture 05 04 05 occur rear end collisions At the one hand each faster flow is compressed and or becomes bended At the other hand the particles occasionally fall into the faster flow without resistance and thus they affect an increasing density and speed of the faster flow At this process are involved not only single particles but based on the void and uneven spreading of particles within gases in general whole crowds or parcels fall into fast driving bubbles This effect occurs everywhere within the whole volume of these flows thus also within that areas upside of the wing at all locations Previous calculations concerning pressure and speed might theoretical be right however can never mirror real the processes exactly By known and most effective suction effect of faster flows see hurricanes etc the flux alongside a surface becomes much faster and also the spreading of density is much more distinct Vortex Train At the rear end of the wing thus exists a storm like flow backward down This flow meets the air from below the wing which is resting resp some turbulent because sticking at the surface The flow from upside hits onto downside air masses and compression comes up This process occurs on both sides of airplane body so the increased pressure can expand only outward aside Opposite this downward movement still drags air from upside down same time previous thin out spreads further upside So an inflow of air can come only from relative resting areas aside of the plane In addition all these flows are moving backward off Resulting are these double vortices cylinder like shown most impressive at previous picture 05 04 01 at E and F Also these vortices border on neighbouring areas of slower movements so also far behind the plane that suction effect of each faster flow is working These both vortices trains build contrary turning tornados inclusive their self acceleration Large planes mix up the air space for minutes However that occurrence is secondary side effect a most hindering appearance Certainly it s not at all the primary reason for the lift at wings as some theories assume The lift really is affecting at that rear part of the wing Downside of the wing nearly normal atmospheric pressure exists Upside of the wing that wind glides alongside the surface diagonal down The wind s static pressure is much less and the pressure difference affects as an upward directed force Nevertheless the prevailing part of lift forces appear at the front side part of the wing so the processes there must be considered Information ahead At picture 05 04 07 again the yellow wing is drawn and the primary vertical thin out area upside back is marked light red The profile of the wing at its rear part in principle is triangle shaped and takes nearby three quarter B C of the total length of the wing The secondary horizontal thin out area again is marked dark red now however drawn also further ahead Upside correctly was assumed the spreading of that thin out resp upside in the figurative sense was also called information into horizontal direction occurs by sound speed Valid as a clear approval is the fact the lift at wings disappears if the plane flies ultrasound speed Each wing profile shows a special characteristic graph concerning the relation of speed and lift Increased speed results increasing lift force However each excessive speeds reduces the lift and finally it disappears in total Starting point of these considerations was the primary trigger for that lift force occurs at the apex of the wing B and the effect is completely build out at the rear end of the wing At previous example was assumed the plane is flying by half sound speed As previous information is running by sound speed within space it s running ahead of the moving plane with its half sound speed also by half sound speed Here now at this picture is assumed that information becomes affecting at least three of these quarters ahead of primary trigger point B Right side are drawn again these lines of previous picture 05 04 06 They represent the shift of neighbouring particles by these winds of different speed New curves right side are adjusted as differences to the vertical direction However one must consider stronger winds represent stronger suction by shifting of their locations of collisions and thus show stronger effects concerning particle further ahead The higher ordered and faster the flow the less negative collisions occur and the less resistance exists for following particles Suction by Void and fast Flow The thinned out space and speed of winds thus reach ahead not linear but the intensive movements affect correspondingly stronger into the space in front of the wing Maximum speed exists alongside the wing upper surface so its suction reaches also ahead of the nose towards downside ahead These winds still won t drag any particles but they only offer a void space for particles which occasionally were hit into likely directions here even from below ahead just over that nose At picture 05 04 08 again are drawn these vertical wind curves now in addition accentuated by horizontal curves of different air layers Depending on the wind speeds these partial areas are coloured from resting air dark blue to most fast flow light blue Like at flows of different speed at the rear part of the wing strong flows alongside the front part of the wing were affecting strong suction to neighbouring flows In addition the surface there is bended and alongside curved surfaces that suction effect is most effective Flow threats are bended towards faster flow all times and also that flow by itself becomes bended and now can fly that curve without resistance like described in details at chapter 05 02 Suction at picture 05 02 05 By view from below of the nose the surface steady turns aside and thus additional void appears with corresponding suction The curvature of profile at this part is critical concerning the lift and the resistance It must be adapted to the flight speed wanted Order Factor Wall Repeatedly I pointed out the function of walls at the characteristic of flows The sloped end of the wing represents a relative void and was described as the trigger for the vertical thin out A corresponding wall does not exist for the horizontal movements so a real wind comes up with shifting particles backward far off Within free space all local areas of relative void can be filled up from all sides As described in details by basic chapter 05 02 at picture 05 02 05 the void aside of a wall however can only be filled up from outside and prevailingly alongside the wall That s valid here along the total upper face behind the apex appears relative void which spreads to the front side parts as strong winds Any fast running particle appears like void for any following particle and just that void never is filled up from the wall thus exists continuously Minimum and maximum static Pressure As ahead and above of the nose that suction can only be filled up from downside and as the bended flow there can flow without resistance around the curved face just at this part of wing s upper surface exists maximum speed Not only direct at the surface but also each upper layer of air shows its maximum flow just there At these parts of light colours frontside upward thus within all layers exists minimum pressure cross to the flow directions So there at the wing surface weights most less static pressure The air indeed escapes upward in front of the nose so the wing flies forward all times into an area of most less pressure with relative few resistance Onto the below surface of the wing in principle weights the total atmospheric pressure However the air of that region is not totally calm but is sucked back little bit afterwards it s dragged some ahead finally sucked backward at the rear end So also at the below surface affects the atmospheric pressure not by total strength The difference of static pressures between upside and downside surfaces results the wanted lifting force Rough Calculation of Lift Forces Many formula are used for calculating these forces The mentioned circulation theory for example works with a factor circulation deduced of backside vortices trails resp representing practically speed differences between upside and downside surfaces of wing Other calculations assume the lift forces should correspond to the air masses pushed down so a pure mechanical view without any consideration concerning suction effects Mostly are used Cw and Ca numbers which however are determined empirical for every profile and angle of attack Mostly is used the density of the medium while pressure probably would be the factor more realistic The factor of speed all times is used by square probably too simplistic view Only the scale of the effective face is a clear factor at common calculations of lift forces All common formula however do not fit to the fact above sound speed no lift is achieved thus the factor sound speed theoretically should be involved at any formula So I offer an attempt for calculations deduced from the real reasons of the processes producing the lift force using the data of pictures 05 04 04 and 05 04 05 Behind apex A of the profile the air can fall down at the distance H during the time TL until the wing moved the distance L towards left The horizontal wind corresponds to previous downward speed plus an additional part corresponding to the relation H L previous one sixth so the wind of this example achieves 30 m s within the space This wind continuously fills up by parts the void alongside distance L Based on suction corresponding mass of air must come from front side however alongside the shorter distance from the apex to the nose The front part of the profile here was assumed one third of rear part so in front of the apex the wind should move three times faster for example thus by 90 m s i e some 300 km h The average speed alongside whole upside face thus would be some 45 m s 3 30 1 90 4 Now the dynamic pressures are calculable by Bernoulli formula at

    Original URL path: http://www.evert.de/ap0504e.htm (2016-02-09)
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  • evert fluid-technology
    it s missing the wing already by slow speed resp few height So within free space or at normal travel speed the wing is affected only by an upward pressure resulting of the air layer directly grasped by the wing so here only that layer of maximum 2 5 m height the twentieth part of necessary air masses In addition that pressure naturally flows off aside and downside and backwards Thus a continuous energy input is necessary which continuously gets lost for the system like e g the energy invested in the bow wave of ships spreads into infinity Too less too much Lift For high or the travel speed the wings must show a rather flat profile in order to produce sufficient lift and same time showing most less resistance For slow or start speed the profiles must show stronger bending resp at rear end of the wings additional surfaces are extended Nevertheless the natural lift is not sufficient for airplanes with full fuel tanks After the take off the plane is steep inclined so previous wedge shaped air cushion of high density comes up Mechanical pushing up upon that wedge is no original lift but pure mechanical trust at an inclined face Like discussed at later chapter the engines should suck off the air upside of the wing and should not be arranged below of wings like common practise and also at previous A380 The dilemma however is these engines would produce much too strong lift at high speed travel Thus the engines should be installed behind of the wings at C If strong lift is demanded the air is taken only from the upper side controlled by flaps At normal flight or few demand for lift the air by parts could come from below of the wing at D or the airplanes should be designed like described at later chapter by a New Technology Artificial Wind Now however back to the data of A380 plane and the calculation of natural lift i e only these lift forces based on the wing profile by itself resulting of normal molecular movement energy plus some drive energy for balancing the resistance Starting point are previous data mass m 500 t 500 000 kg resp 5 000 000 N surface of wing S 850 m 2 speed v 360 km h 100 m s and density of air rho 1 kg m 3 Each square meter of the effecting wing face thus must contribute the lift force A 5 000 000 850 5 882 N m 2 At chapter Lift at Wings based on the movements of observed air particles and resulting suction effects I found a flow of 45 m s relative to the wing at its upper side as an average That value could also be some higher because there was calculated without the optimum angle of attack about 3 degree for compensation of the air flowing from below upward over the nose In addition the calculations there assumed a sound speed only with 300 m s instead of usual 330 m s The speed of these artificial winds about 45 to 50 m s could be valid in general so also for the A380 So here is assumed the air below of the wing moves along by 100 m s the air at the upper side however are flowing by 145 m s relative to the wing Real Lift Picture 05 12 04 visualizes following mode of calculation Each blue cube represents one cubic metre of air At A this air is resting V 0 the normal atmospheric pressure of 1 bar exists respective likely static pressure PS 100 000 N m 2 into any direction This resting cubic metre of air shows no dynamic pressure PD 0 Below of the wing red at B is drawn a corresponding air mass moving relative to the wing by 100 m s V 100 This air shows dynamic pressure flow pressure dam up pressure at its right side darker blue corresponding to known formula PD 0 5 rho v 2 So the flow pressure at this downside face of the wing is PDU 0 5 1 100 2 5 000 N m 2 As the sum of all pressures is constant towards the below surface of the wing affects a reduced static pressure PSU 100 000 5 000 95 000 N m 2 light blue The analogue mode of calculation is used at the upper side of the wing at C there with some faster relative speed of 145 m s V 145 Resulting is a dynamic pressure PDO 0 5 1 145 2 10 500 N m 2 and corresponding the static pressure PSO 100 000 10 500 89 500 N m 2 The difference of both static pressures is the lift force PA 95 000 89 500 5 500 N m 2 Based on the mutual dependence of pressures this value also results directly as difference of both dynamic pressures This lift force of 5 500 N m 2 is rather likely to the necessary lift of 5 882 N m 2 like determined upside especially as the artificial wind of 45 m s is assumed a little bit too slow E g 50 m s would result a lift force of 6 325 N m 2 so some more than necessary for the horizontal flight The formalism becomes really simple if based only at the undisputed fact of the constant of dynamic and static pressures Downward winds and mechanistic actio reactio not at all are involved only the difference of static pressures raises an airplanes This formula is also valid if not only that natural lift is used but the plane is pushed up by steep angle of attack The air becomes dammed up below of the wing and pushed forward so that air becomes compressed If the higher density and the slower relative speed are used that formula will result the demanded increased lift force for

    Original URL path: http://www.evert.de/ap0512e.htm (2016-02-09)
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  • evert fluid-technology
    Suction forces affect right angle towards the face i e the forward and back showing components mostly are only a parts of These force components of the bow area are marked quite left side of the picture dam up pressure B red and suction components D blue These longitudinal forces at the bow of the body are balance Inevitably however are the backward showing suction forces C red which are marked right side of the picture by their components into longitudinal axis No matter how long the body is stretched that rear end suck can not be eliminated in total So the real resistance of a flow conform body primary does not occur by dam up pressure at the bow but by sucking of the tail Picture 05 09 04 below shows an early drawing of my Fluid Technology a longitudinal cross sectional view of a ship body E grey The dam up pressure at bow F is eliminated as the water red is guided aside through canals G via props dark red At stern are installed corresponding canals and props so the rear end sucking is also eliminated This ship is well to maneuver however that technique is only suitable for calm conditions e g at inland waters Mechanic Tension The real solution of that problem might be solved by brook trouts Obviously they can reduce the flow resistance to zero and above this they produce a drive force relative to flow without motor power At picture 05 09 05 the body A of a trout is drawn schematic as flow conform profile The trout stands still within the flow with open mouth so the dam up pressure B red also affects inside of the body The areas of suction D aside reaching up to rear end C again are marked blue Arrows within the mouth area represent the dam up pressure affecting all around likely That increased pressure thus affects also onto the upper wall dark grey which could be the inner side of a half sphere From the rear side i e from the body A affects normal counter pressure at this sphere Opposite at front side of that sphere affects much less pressure from the suction bow area So that inner sphere would be pressed forward a very smart solution of the paradoxon Much too smart As an alternative the below half of that hollow sphere yellow could be build by elastic material From backside F again the normal body pressure affects onto that balloon towards frontside aside G however this elastic wall would become beat out towards the outside suction like the tarpaulin of lorries That tension affects a drag at the supporting points at the mouth cross to the flow and aside at H in forward direction Is this the effect why trouts stand smart within flows Coanda plus Magnus The dam up pressure is a positive occurrence as forces come up Previous solutions however use these forces only static so not according to the special behaviour of fluids Remarkable and most effective forces only come up by flows like e g by previous mentioned Coanda and Magnus Effect Picture 05 09 06 shows only the front part of a body A The areas of dam up pressure respective slow flows are marked red and the areas of suction resp faster flows are marked blue At first is discussed the drawing left side of the picture The dam up pressure B gets into the body through the mouth The border of mouth C is rounded so according to Coanda the flow D is redirected aside At the following that cross flux again is flowing along a curved face E so the flux F is redirected outward back The flux exits through slits into the flow outside of the body resp is even pulled off by that flow Simultaneously with the redirections of flows each surface is pressed to the flow according to Magnus At mouth C thus affect forces G into centripetal directions thus neutral At the second bending however the surface H is pulled forward So by that double redirection the static dam up pressure is transferred into dynamic a drive force Behind the round mouth come up turbulences J which inside affect stronger pressure onto the cheek I while outside exists only small static pressure at that suction area So the dam up pressure inside of the mouth no longer affects only as resting water That area of high density however produces a flow which becomes increased by suction at the outlet of these canals Flows of different speeds are generated by smart organisation of flow directions and these differences generate the drive forces into the movement direction of the body Multiplication of effective Faces At this picture right side now the basic construction of that Salmon Drive Engine is sketched Again only the front part of body A is drawn and the elements are marked correspondingly Additional constructional element of grills K schematic are drawn Fishes have grills aside within the head by which they take oxygen dissolved within water and the water finally exits through grill slits Grills generally must show wide surfaces like lungs e g by tree like branching I never looked into the mouth of a living fish however I am quite certain special abilities of the brook trout and salmons are based at special shape of their grills like also Viktor Schauberger assumed In principle these grill trees and branches must show relative even and smooth faces at front sides while the rear sides are uneven and rough e g like here sketched by branches or hairs Along the even surface of front sides exist fast flows while at each back side many turbulences exist with corresponding high static pressures The pressure differences result suction into movement direction here each marked blue The grills probably are build by fractal structure so at given space huge surface in total is installed and the pressure differences affect at these multiply surfaces Living beings often are build by most elastic materials and thus successful principles of nature sometimes are hard to detect and rarely to copy by total likely techniques The basic principle of salmons for balancing the resistances against flows and the generation of drive however seems totally clear and simple multiplication of surfaces opposed to flows and organisation of internal flows that kind at each front side face comes up a faster flow than at each rear side face That simple principle is easy to rebuild by many designs and techniques Principle of technical Solution Picture 05 09 07 shows the fuselage of an airplane moving towards left within resting air with an example of the basic principle for a technical solution Here the fuselage shows a broad nose like used at the following chapter In front of the fuselage A exists the dam up pressure B which enters the space inside of the body A flow within canal C between fuselage A and part D of the body is redirected at curved faces and exits aside through slits So at the one hand the air is pressed into canals by the dam up pressure at the other hand the air is sucked off the canals by flows along the outer surface of the body At this picture right upside once more is shown the redirection at bended faces within three canals C each showing two walls Here the back side is called each surface showing to the tail of plane The front side is called each surface showing towards the bow of the plane At this picture right side below schematic are drawn three possibilities for decelerating the flow at back sides At the back side E are installed sheets in horizontal and vertical direction The sheets are covered with holes so the air is hindered to flow fast along that surface Based on slow movement resp turbulences a strong static pressures weight at that surface thus pushing the airplane forward At F is shown a construction which corresponds somehow to previous grill hairs the back side is build like a nail bed i e many round sticks reach out of surface The air can move within however only rather slow and turbulent Probably elastic elements like long hair rough fur or feathers would work well for producing the wanted high static pressure at the back sides of the canals At G now is sketched a construction of most simple technique as the back sides simply show a waved surfaces The air moving cross over these waves can not flow laminar but only by turbulent vortices So at any case front side surfaces of the canals should be most even and smooth while all back sides should hinder the flows alongside its surfaces Dents and even Surfaces Previous pictures are pure schematic drawings and much too macroscopic Certainly fluid needs enough space to move e g sufficient diameters of pipes and here of the canals Otherwise the system will stop the throughput by itself On the other hand these grills show the effect comes up only by an enormously increased surface i e at microscopic small structures As here the flow is pushed by pressure and same time it s dragged off the canals also relative narrow canals should work At picture 05 09 08 previous back side with waves is shown some more detailed as the waves here are replaced by small dents Left side of the picture shows a view onto the back side W which is mounted between two beams S The circles represent small round dents or also a honeycomb pattern would work likely The air moves along these holes by much turbulent flow Further right side a cross sectional view is shown and four walls W between the fuselage front side D and fuselage inner wall A are drawn Each back side shows that dent pattern also right side of the fuselage outer wall while each front side is even also left side of fuselage inner wall Along the even surfaces the flows move without resistance resulting suction marked blue respective the difference of static pressures pushes the airplane forward Once more further right side that cross sectional view is sketched once more now however the whole sandwich of sheets is bended corresponding to the curvature of the fuselage bow Through these canals thus shall move flows with quite different characteristics at both faces The laminar flow at the front sides however can not keep at surface very long but only ten or fifteen times the distance between the surfaces That s why here the length of sandwich blocks is limited and arranged with some free space between Grooves cross and longwise At picture 05 09 08 quite right side is sketched a sandwich block by diagonal view which might be easy to construct and might be most effective too The air flows downside up through canals each back side shows grooves cross to flow each front side shows grooves into direction of the flow So each wall has grooves at both side at one side longitudinal and at the other side cross to the flow At back sides exist turbulent flows as the cross grooves won t allow a continuous flux Opposite at the front sides the flux will run pretty well as the longitudinal grooves protect against disturbances from aside like known at wings However also these sandwich blocks should not be too long and arranged with some distance between so the wanted flow pattern can regenerate In general laminar flows keep longer at bended surfaces so curved sandwich blocks could be some longer where the bends naturally should always back away from the flow direction Examples of Arrangement At picture 05 09 09 left side again the bow of fuselage A is drawn inclusive the front part D of the body and canals C between At the bow exists a dam up pressure so the air is pressed into the canals and also pulled off aside Upside at this drawing previous sandwich blocks dark red with each distances between are arranged corresponding to the curvature of the bow Downside at this drawing is shown the dam up pressure well could enter further inside the fuselage so the canals resp sandwich blocks E are arranged also aside each other At any case exists high pressure resp relative high density within that inlet area from which the air is pressed into the canals The inlet of the canals are arranged stepwise Diverse measurements are possible for increasing the effective faces Theoretical that technique should also work by micrometers of groove depth and distances between the walls practical like ceramics with ordered structures At the other hand compressed air becomes relative viscous and dirt particles will close canals with too less size So a reasonable scale will be some millimetres or centimetres Examples of Data At picture 05 09 09 right side are mentioned some data as an examples upside of the start phase and below the flight phase When starting the airplane e g moves only by 100 km h thus by about 28 m s V 28 relative to the resting air respective the air comes to the inlet with this speed At that area the air becomes dammed up and the speed is reduced e g to 25 m s V 25 Into the relative narrow upward showing canal the air will flow again some slower e g only by 15 m s V 15 Now it s assumed the flow at the cross grooved back sides moves by speed of only 13 m s while the flow at longwise grooved front sides moves by 17 m s V 13 resp V 17 The difference of the kinetic energies of both part flows results about 60 N m 2 P 60 Correspondingly behave the static pressures at both faces and the difference functions as thrust force Six canals K 6 red lines are installed here each wall about 1 cm thick and the distance between the walls some 4 cm The inlet area of the canals in total thus is about 25 cm E 0 25 wide and the constructional element in total about 30 cm B 0 3 wide The height of the fuselage is assumed 3 m H 3 0 grey effective usable height for the sandwich blocks however is only the half of H 1 5 A fuselage segment of 1 m widths thus has 6 times 1 5 equal 9 m 2 effective surface F 9 Onto that total surface now affect previous 60 N m 2 9 m 2 540 N as drive force Downside at this drawing the data of the flight phase are mentioned as an example The flight speed is assumed with 720 km h resp 200 m s V 200 However only a part of the dammed up air shall enter the inlet area e g by 50 m s V 50 because the rest of the air must cause the redirection of the flow outside along the bow Within the canals the speed again will be reduced e g to 25 m s V 25 If again the flows at pressure and suction side differ by 2 m s the motions will be 23 m s resp 27 m s V 23 and V 27 the pressure difference now is about 100 N m 2 P 100 Related to previous 9 m 2 total surface the acceleration forces shows 900 N Drive for any Demand Drive for any Demand That thrust of 900 N naturally is rather small e g in comparison with the 300 kN for starting the A380 plane At previous chapter were discussed the lift forces at wings by speeds and pressures within one cubic meter of air Analogue data are shown at picture 05 09 13 now concerning that trout thrust At A is sketched a canal of 1 m length and 1 m 2 cross sectional face If the air within is resting the quite normal atmospheric pressure will weight equal at all side faces If air is flowing through that canal here from below up upside will come up increased dynamic pressure and at the side faces corresponding less static pressure Stronger flows will increase the dynamic pressure once more and the static pressure will decrease even more see arrows at A and B If that wide canal is divided into ten narrow canals the static pressure will weight at ten times wider faces of the walls between Now it s important the canals are curved e g like drawn at C Already this will result a difference of flow speeds the flow will hit onto the concave pressure face friction will come up and a reduced flow Along the convex suction face the air continuously can fall into relative void resulting an ordered and accelerated flow In addition naturally the faces should be rough at the back side and most even at the front side Resulting will increased static pressure at the pressure back sides and reduced static pressure at the suction front sides see arrows PD and PS at C At this table the dyamic pressure again is calculated by common formula P 0 5 m rho v 2 for each speeds at pressure and suction sides VD and VS The pressure difference between pressure and suction side PD und PS is the thrust pressure PV Both two upside rows show previous 60 N m 2 und 100 N m 2 As these canals are rather wide with the distance of 10 cm between the walls also higher throughput could be achieved Same time the difference of speed at both sides could be wider e g at the start already with 18 and 23 m s see third row resulting a thrust of 102 N m 2 At high speed travel see forth row the air could move e g

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  • evert fluid-technology
    the middle some cross sectional views according to each area of dotted lines In principle that fuselage has right angle cross section only the edges are rounded a little bit Towards the rear end the upper side keeps most wide only the below face decreases V shaped Compared with common shape of fuselages this shape is really awkward however advantageous for using trout thrust Above this exists an essential advantage as the right angled space inside is much better usable than within the narrow and long pipes of common airplanes Upside mounted Wing At picture 05 08 05 now the arrangement of additional constructional elements schematic is sketched at A by cross sectional view of the airplane at B a vertical cross sectional view of longitudinal axis and at C by view top down onto that airplane An essential characteristic of that new technology is the wings are installed upside of the fuselage and the engines behind the wing here of single engine airplane Previous square fuselage blue here is drawn once more At the upper edges are installed poles long stretched and shaped flow conform here called long posts grey Cross upon these long posts is mounted a one piece wing green The central part of the wing thus is positioned upside of the upper face of the fuselage which there is rather wide and flat Only short parts of the wing reach out aside The front edges of these outer parts of the wing are arrow shaped in order to avoid negative flows from aside like mentioned upside Normal elevator flaps dark green are installed at the outer rear ends of the wings Both long posts reach out further backward behind the rear end of the wing each building a rudder elements dark green Beams are installed cross to these long posts for supporting the engine red The inlet of that engine is positioned at the level of the wing By flap dark green at rear end of the wing is controlled which part of air is sucked into the engine along the upper or below side of the wing Already that side view B obviously shows the lift force is not only produced at the upper side of the wing The wing and the fuselage practically build a nozzle so also at the surface of the fuselage exists fast flow As the long posts protect that area against flows from aside the suction effect of that closed canal reaches far ahead over the fuselage upper surface So the fuselage by itself essentially contributes lift forces Much less span of wing is necessary compared with common airplanes Wide Fuselage Length makes running is a basic rule of fluid sciences if the fluid at front is pushed aside a body behind can follow nearly without additional efforts no matter how long that body is This rule is valid no matter concerning trains or boots or ships or airplane fuselages Width makes pulling however is the essential rule of that new technology and the width in addition contributes essentially to the lift forces at that conception Analogue to previous picture now at picture 05 08 06 a double engine machine is sketched with a fuselage much wider at A by view top down at B by cross sectional view and at C by cross sectional view through the longitudinal axis By view top down A the fuselage dark blue shows nearby a right angle surface The rear end is some rounded while the front runs cross to the longitudinal axis rounded a little bit only outside The cockpit should allow free view so it s installed at a central nose light blue some in front of the fuselage The cross sectional view B now shows the fuselage dark blue inclusive the central cockpit nose light blue as a flat rectangle only the edges some rounded At the edges upside outside again two long posts grey are installed now in addition a central long post grey Only that middle long post builds a rudder dark green at its rear end Between the rear end parts of the long posts again cross beams are installed grey for the support of two engines red The longitudinal cross sectional view C shows the fuselage dark blue like the cockpit nose light blue now have flow conform contours almost symmetric i e thus they are neutral concerning lift This body thus affects relative few resistance comparable with the pipe shaped common fuselage Here however the fuselage is stretched towards both sides The faces upside and below are rather flat and also the surfaces aside are curved only little bit Picture 05 08 06 below at D once more shows the longitudinal cross section by some larger scale at a position of climbing flight The flap dark green at the rear end of the wing is pointed out directly ahead of the inlet of the engine The flap shows down so the air for the engine is taken only from the upper side of the wing Same time however cross section surface between flap and upper side builds a bottleneck Such nozzles do not increase the resistance but the increase the speed of flow within The air flows off accelerated however that acceleration by itself affects back into flow i e affecting like suction further ahead at the fuselage upper surface So again the lift is not only produced upside of the wing but also upside of the total surface of the fuselage When common airplanes are climbing up the air is dammed up downside of the wings and upon that air cushion the plane is pushed up by its motors with huge fuel consumption Here that wide downside face of the fuselage naturally builds a wide and stabile area of high density Because the surfaces are completely flat the air softly flows off at the rear end resulting much less turbulence than common fuselages Decisive however is here that airplane is not pushed upward above

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  • evert fluid-technology
    front of the prop inlet The prop blades light red press suck the air some towards the axis The air flows rotating through a canal yellow to the turbine blades light blue At their short radius these blades are moving slower within the space so no gear is necessary The prop and turbine blades could even be installed at one rotor element The geometry of both blades is rather easy to coordinate They will work efficient at any revolutions Conventional props produce such a disordered whirling at the air only two prop fins are used by majority The central part of these blades is rather ineffective So here are installed many blades working only at effective lever arm generating a continuous and well ordered flow The energy input is transferred completely into thrust plus the energy of flows generated by suction for free That new conception of prop wheel engines will work much more effective and economic than the common old units inclusive turbo versions Problems of Jet Engines The drive for transport vehicles is mostly done by combustion engines working by different stroke phases Two third of the invested energy diffuses without usable effect however with huge environmental pollution The jet engines are working with continuous production of pressure and combustion Theoretical such a process is more economic Theoretical the invested energy would be completely transferred into thrust if the air and gases behind the airplane would be as calm and cold as before Instead of the jet engines release a red hot ray As four fifth of the energy evaporates without useful effect the procedure might really be no optimum solution The exhaust fumes could be cooled down e g by injection of water Ecologically sound however could combustion finally be if H2O splitting and ignition is done on board and on demand direct at the injection nozzle Generally however the production of pressure makes no sense as the counter pressures are increasing by square Also the production of heat by itself is unsuitable as the particles whirl around even more chaotic Modern jet engines are real masterpieces However they are expression of the idea one must transport backward the air so the plane flies forward the more pressure and heat the more thrust is achieved automatically For explaining the reaction effect often is quoted Newton s actio reactio However practically one is far away from that 1 1 relation For example the double thrust often demands four times more fuel consumption Only by certain revolutions the throughput is at an optimum differing only five percent decreases the performance drastically Jet engines practically are used at all passenger and freight planes nevertheless as suboptimum solution Following point of view could be an alternative effective thrust comes up only if the kinetic energy of an ordered flow is redirected at a flat wide face So the main aim must be the generation of suitable movements Most few pressure should be applied Simply by suction a flow can be initiated

    Original URL path: http://www.evert.de/ap0515e.htm (2016-02-09)
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