archive-de.com » DE » E » EVERT.DE

Total: 194

Choose link from "Titles, links and description words view":

Or switch to "Titles and links view".
  • evert fluid - technolgy
    can stand still within a flow Analogue techniques are able to organize the draft for airplanes with few fuel consumption 05 08 Airplane NT These quite new nearby autonomous thrust engines allow quite new conceptions for airplanes 05 15 Prop and Jet Engines Alternatives for common props and new design for jet engines much more effective and much less noisy 05 16 Air Pressure Bowl Engine A revolutionary Invention Helicopters

    Original URL path: http://www.evert.de/ap06e.htm (2016-02-09)
    Open archived version from archive


  • evert fluid - technolgy
    Fluid Technology Fluid Power Machines The capters of the old website were reviewed reduced to relevant points and ordered by subject coming up Fluid Technology MAIN MENUE

    Original URL path: http://www.evert.de/ap07e.htm (2016-02-09)
    Open archived version from archive

  • evert fluid-technologie
    Pages Evert Buoyancy for Aviation ISBN 978 3 7392 3163 1 Euro 12 00 Production and publisher BoD Books on Demand Norderstedt Germany 2016 Alfred Evert hardcover form 21 29 cm 40 pages 27 colour pages Content two periodical articles and two chapters concerning Bowl Engine ap0504e pdf Lift at Wings 10 pages ap0512e pdf A380 and Lift 7 pages ap0516e pdf Air Pressure Bowl Engine 12 pages ap0517e pdf

    Original URL path: http://www.evert.de/bookf.htm (2016-02-09)
    Open archived version from archive

  • evert fluid-technologie
    are mirrored spiral forward Resulting is a flow with twist at the center flowing fast without friction At Potential Twist Pipes and Segment Pipes such flows are organized at it s best worldwide could be reduced the demanded energies and costs Thermo Dynamics By the laws of thermo dynamics heat losses are not to avoid e g resting the small efficiency of combustion machines The application of pressure results heat and increasing counter pressure The energy input can be transferred into mechanic energy only by parts By reverse conclusion the application of suction should result a cooling thus heat consumption Indeed also here the law of constant energy is valid same time a motion of higher density and better ordered structure comes up So relative few input of energy results a surplus of usable kinetic energy Many decades ago Viktor Schauberger pointed out these grave differences of the destroying explosion technologies and recommended nature conform implosion techniques Problem Phenomenon Solution Explanation 2 Aero Technology Theory of Lift It s common understanding the lift at wings increases with the square of speed Really however the lift of a certain wing increases linear with the speed until it breaks down in total Above sound speed no longer exists any lift force Existing are about ten hypotheses for the lift effect however none describes the real cause of that force The lift exclusive comes up by the difference of static pressures at the upper and below face This corresponds to the dynamic flow pressures which again correspond to the speed of the flows Based on the suction effect upside rear end an artificial wind is generated up to 50 km h relative to the wing This suction flow spreads forward above the upper face and far in front of the nose however by sound speed as a maximum within the space Trout Thrust Only brook trouts and salmons can stand within a flow totally still Their gills are able to transform the dam up pressure into drive pressure That s comparable to an airplane which autonomously is flying across the Atlantic using only its own airstream At the bow of an A380 a room of 150 m 3 could be used for gill faces much wider than its wing faces They can produce a thrust of 100 up to 250 kN thus at an range of conventional power engines No moving or rotating elements are necessary and no motor drive The dam up pressure does not weight at the bow but the air is allowed to enter the fuselage and the air flows off aside some later Walls in shape of sails are installed within these canals with different speeds at both sides The resulting thrust affects forward in the longitudinal direction New Design of Planes Common airplanes consume too much fuel especially at the start phase with huge noises They pollute the environment up to high air layers The flight techniques achieved high standard Nevertheless total new points of view could result

    Original URL path: http://www.evert.de/resultf.htm (2016-02-09)
    Open archived version from archive

  • evert fluid-technology
    is tilted and rear flaps C are extended Again however the downward motion of air is without importance but the air is dammed up compressed building an air cushion The counter pressure is pushing upward the faces see arrows However this works only near the ground The downward pressure wave spreads with sound speed The counter pressure comes back only by half speed It takes one tenth of a second for moving the wing length of 11 m The counter pressure is running only some 15 m so will miss the wing already by slow speed and short distances That pushing up above the tilted plane of an air cushion demands much thrust and that s why the rear flaps are retracted short time after lift off That work of lifting by pushing up of the airplane masses occurs corresponding to the mechanical laws One must differ strongly the natural lift of wings because that occurs by the totally different rules of hydro static buoyancy Buyancy at Water and Air That well known process is sketched at picture 05 17 03 Within the water blue all bodies A with heavier specific weight sink down to the ground A body B and C is swimming at the surface if its mass is some less than the water displaced If both are equal the body D will glide anywhere within the water If a box E is open below the enclosed air is compressed until the pressure is balanced at the below border face If the inside pressure is stronger than the water pressure at the upper face of the box that body will rise up Decisive for that buoyancy all times is the difference of water pressures onto the faces below and upside With every meter of depth the water pressure increases by on ton i e by 10000 N m 2 For example this becomes obvious if a wooden stick F is holt vertical within the water If it s released the pressure vehemently catapults the stick out of the water We are steady exposed to the atmospheric pressure However we merely register it s weighting with about 100000 N m 2 so corresponding to a water pile of ten meter The airs seams light however the buoyancy is working like at the water A balloon G filled up with air is nearby as heavy like the displaced air and is gliding around anyhow A balloon H filled up with a light gas will rise up Accelerated molecular Speed An interesting case is a hot air balloon HB below it s open so the air pressure inside and outside is balanced Different however is the molecular speed of the air particles which inside is accelerated by the heating Some fast particles indeed are rising up within the balloon Above this anywhere the direction and speed of particles is exchanged at each collision so the fast speed is forwarded from one particle to the next The hot gas demands wider space it s lighter and thus rising up The normal atmospheric pressure weights outside at the balloon shell as the particles hit onto the material with their normal molecular speed The particles inside hit some stronger versus the material as they are moving faster Resulting is a difference of static pressures The air pressure is calculated by formula P 0 5 rho v 2 0 7 109375 N m 2 density rho 1 25 kg m 3m molecular speed 500 m s factor 0 7 because the particles in average hit onto a face by an angle of 45 degree If the added heat increases the molecular speed only by 3 m s a difference of more than 100 N m 2 comes up A balloon with 8 m radius has an effecting face of 200 m 2 The small difference of static pressures can keep gliding a cross weight of 2000 kg Further heat will rise up the balloon The balloon will go on rising without further input of energy Occasional heating must only balance the heat losses Hydrostatic and Aerostatic Buoyancy That s the grave distinction to previous mechanic lifting that pushing up of the airplane mass above the tilted plane of the air cushion demands steady input of energy Opposite here only once must occur the heat input and afterward only the heat losses must be compensated comparable with friction losses Here the buoyancy force is caused exclusive by the difference of static pressures at the effective faces e g based on different water pressure at different depth This difference can be increased artificial e g at that hot air balloon with accelerating the molecular speed Decisive all times are the pressure relations direct at the border faces here inside and outside the balloon shell quite near to the material A difference naturally come up also with air flows e g if a storm razes over the flat roof of a building The wind has strong dynamic pressure and can affects pressure onto the roof corresponding weaker The normal now however relative stronger atmospheric pressure within the building catapults the roof off At the other hand that wind can be created artificially e g via suction effect above the face of a wing The inevitable resulting difference of static pressures direct at the border layers above and below the wing generates the lift force Energy input is only necessary for the forward motion of the airplane thus only for balancing the air resistance The buoyancy force is resulting exclusive from the difference of static pressures by the laws of hydro statics respective rules of fluid dynamics and certainly not by the laws of solid body mechanics Just corresponding with the processes at any wing the effects are rebuild within the closed systems of bowl engines Data of the A320 Previous statements are supported by A320 data shown at table 05 17 04 Three columns show the phases of starting rising up and travel flight at heights of 0

    Original URL path: http://www.evert.de/ap0517e.htm (2016-02-09)
    Open archived version from archive

  • evert fluid-technology
    suitable stable sheets The glide face GF must be most smooth If necessary concentric grooves could be more stable see C This picture upside right once more shows previous profile of the rotor blade RB light blue The air flow is most fast relative to the stationary glide face GF light grey At the other hand the air is moving only some slower faster relative to the rotor blade So a simple and stable profile could do e g a rounded square like sketched at D These dimensions could be suitable the gap between the glide face and the rotor blade with 1 cm to 2 cm the rotor blade about 2 cm to 4 cm height its distance above towards the stick face 6 cm to 12 cm The whole hollow cylinder thus will show the height of only 10 cm to 20 cm also by most different radius Below at this picture some flat cylinders are piled up The rotors are mounted at a common shaft This simple shape of rotor units can be build easy and light The masses of involved air is less than one kilogram This system can accelerate fast and a wiper engine will do Such small units might fit e g for control functions of a helicopter Cone Engine All lifting forces push the even stick faces upward so they must be build rather stiff Much more stable are faces of a truncated cone So it would be advantageous to build these boxes in shape of cones Picture 05 16 04 upside shows a longitudinal cross sectional view through the system axis Several layers can be piled up also at this version all rotors mounted at one shaft and driven by one motor M green In order to resist the centrifugal force the rotor blades should be connected by rings green running all around These rings could be guided at some slide or ball bearings here marked only rough Below this picture shows a view top down Between the rings could be installed additional blades keeping the air in constant motion At this cone version the rotor blades do not only move the air at a circle track of a horizontal level Here the rotor blades are sucking the air along the curved surface of the cone mantle So here that additional suction effect come up like discussed at upside picture 05 16 02 at G Without any resistance the flow follows that curvature Even a potential vortex comes up with its self acceleration effect Previous flat version is suitable only at small systems At wider systems the faces must be build cone shaped and also these supporting rings must be installed These measurements achieve stiff faces and stiff rotor cages even with relative thin profiles even for high revolutions Such multiple layer units e g are suitable for the draft of helicopters and other vehicles too Bowl Engine The air flows are relative slow at the central areas so there won t come up strong lift forces The speed increases linear with the radius the dynamic flow pressure by square Also by square increases the surface so the main lift forces come up at the outer regions So the cone could be rather flat at the centre however should be inclined at wider radius That s achieved by a bowl shaped construction Picture 05 16 05 shows that principle upside by a cross sectional view through the system axis below by view top down In order to build a most stable and light construction one should avoid a central shaft The bowl like stick and glide faces can be build throughout over the centre The rotor no longer reaches to the system axis but ends at a gear rim ZK dark green A gear wheel ZR dark blue is installed at a shaft driving the rotor The rotor cage is build light with these curved profiles blue and connecting rings green However the outside ring of this construction needs ball bearings RL dark green preferred three for suspension Also the middle gear rim must be guided by suitable suspension This version of bowl engines is used at large systems e g for creating the lift forces for helicopters Also multiple layers can be installed one above the other Most interesting is also the possibility to shift one bowl within the other Multiple Bowl Picture 05 16 06 shows this variation with a schematic cross sectional view Here are assembled three rotor layers R1 R2 and R3 with different radius one within the other The stick and glide faces of the middle layer are direct connected with the faces of the upper and below layers All boxes are connected below outside Also at the middle all faces are fix connected with a pipe yellow These round and curved sheets build a most stable body Three rotor cages light blue are installed each ending with a gear rim dark green at the middle Each rotor is driven by a gear wheel at a separate shaft dark blue with a separate engine here only shown for R1 M1 and R2 M2 The R3 M3 is at a shifted position This measurement allows each rotor running with different revolutions corresponding to the demands For example the wide rotor R1 could take the basic weight of a helicopter The middle rotor R2 could take the current payload The small rotor R3 can accelerate fast suitable e g for take off and rising up The capacities should be dimensioned with sufficient reserve so even the failure of one part system is covered Electric engines should be preferred for driving the rotor systems Usual emergency generators will do also twice redundant High demands occur only for starting the system or for acceleration where part systems can speed up one after the other At running mode only friction losses must be compensated New Helicopter Design Previous air pressure machines in shape of disks cones and bowls can be combined in diverse modes The design of aircrafts in general will show new and different characteristics As an example at picture 05 16 07 is sketched a new conception of a helicopter upside left by view top down right side by view at the front and from aside The contour of the cabin A grey has a round bow and becomes smooth narrowed to the rear end The contour B green of the helicopter reaches far out of the cabin in front above the bow flattened aside and to the rear end As a whole the upside face builds a dome C At the front this dome is build like the nose of a wing Towards both sides the dome smoothly passes over to short wings Control flaps dark green are mounted outside back at the wings Horizontal tails and a rudder dark green are installed at the rear end of the dome That flat dome with its wing profile will contribute lifting forces at horizontal flight So that shape shows the characteristics of a compact airplane Below of that dome wing hangs a rather high cabin The view at the front side shows the maximum width The cabin has a round bow and becomes smaller to the rear end The wide usable room still is shaped flow conform At the below row of that picture are drawn the positions of different engines The lift engine D red is installed within the dome here e g with three bowls integrated one within the other The area for the drive units of the rotors is marked green Instead of the complex rotors of common helicopters the draft here is done by a separate unit with a horizontal shaft and separate engine here in shape of a cone machine E red As an example and for optimum usage of the available space the radius of the rotor layers are different long Instead of conventional service rotors here also the control units are integrated within the fuselage Here are drawn two units F red These are simple disks with relative short radius so the rotors can accelerate fast When starting that system both units are directed at opposite position so their thrust forces compensate each other These units are suspended to turn and swivel around two axis If both are turned back forward thrust comes up If both are directed towards the front the helicopter will fly backward If both units are turned aside the helicopter will turn around its vertical axis That helicopter for example could have dimensions like these total length and width about 8 m the height some 4 m The usable space of the cabin could be 3 m long wide and high with electric generator starter battery and tanks at the double floor The lift rotor D has a diameter of about 4 m the draft rotor E up to 3 m the control units F and G about 1 m Now it s the question which forces might be achieved at which revolutions Calculation of Forces The following calculations are based at these general points of view prevailingly is used the suction effect which works only up to sound speed Important are most clear flow structures Thus only speeds up to 150 m s are used here or much less It s assumed the flow at the stick faces will be slower than at the glide faces by 10 Suitable forces however come up already at 5 difference The difference of dynamic flow pressures corresponds to the difference of static pressures These weight at circle faces The surface increases by square with the radius The speed rises linear however it s affecting by square So the major part of forces come up at the outer areas Exact data must be calculated by integral However usable values are achieved if the pressures at the rim of the disk are applied at two third of the circle face Simplistic can also be assumed the speed difference of previous 5 results a similar difference of forces as these values can only be measured empirical Forces of Control Units Table 05 16 08 shows data of the control units sketched at previous helicopter picture 05 16 07 at F The rotor radius is 0 4 m two units with each four disks are installed thus eight pairs of effecting faces The table shows results of 1800 up to 3600 rpm thus with 75 m s up to 150 m s Suitable thrust forces come up already by 5 differences marked green Double revolutions increases the forces by square certainly sufficient for this helicopter At normal flight phase that helicopter can be controlled by flaps and rudder The internal control is only necessary for hover flight and landing for keeping a certain position At normal case both units are directed towards each other so their thrust forces compensate each other If the units are swiveled or turned previous thrust forces are available spontaneous Such air pressure controlled aircrafts produce no external air movements they start and fly and hover and land quite silent They can even float into their hangar by itself Thrust Forces A cone shaped thrust unit was used at previous conception picture 05 16 07 at E The table 05 16 09 shows corresponding data Seven rotor layers are installed with partly different radius from 0 9 m to 1 4 m at one shaft Again the pressure at the rim is applied on 2 3 of the face The speed difference between stick and glide faces is assumed with 5 Revolutions between 600 and 900 rpm result thrust forces of about 4000 N up to 9000 N marked green Below the air resistance is calculated for different speeds based on known formula F 0 5 A rho v 2 Cw The face A is assumed with 12 m 2 the density rho with 1 25 kg m 3 and the specific resistance value Cw with 0 4 a high value as e g a glider has Cw 0 15 The previous thrust of about 9000 N would allow that helicopter to travel with a speed of 200 km h marked green This table also shows double speed at 400 km h and 800 km h below right side increases the air resistance by square 4 fold and 16 fold That s why airliners fly at great height within thin air density about 0 4 kg m 3 where the air resistance is reduced to one third However up there also the performance of common thrust machines is corresponding reduced Opposite here the boxes are hermetic closed and the air pressure within is constant The performance is independent from external conditions These machines can even drive with a density some higher e g with rho 2 kg m 3 The thrust increases by one half here e g up to about 13500 N At these cone engines the air is pulled around curved faces As described upside the convex glide face is released at the other hand the flow scratches along the concave stick face Here is assumed a difference of only 5 e g from 132 km h a reduction to 125 km h Quite realistic the flow at the stick face could be only 119 km h or even 112 km h slow The thrust force increase double or three fold here up to 18000 N or even 27000 N So that air pressure cone engine will deliver more thrust than necessary for that helicopter Lift Forces At previous conception was used a bowl shaped engine for creating lift force picture 05 16 07 at D Table 05 16 10 shows corresponding data Three rotor layers are installed one including the other with radius of 1 4 m 1 7 m and 2 0 m The rotors are not connected with a common shaft but all rotors have a rim gear at the middle The drive of each rotor is done a separate shaft and a separate engine So each rotor can drive different revolutions independent from the others even contrary turning At this table the lift forces are calculated for speeds of each 94 m s and again one third faster 123 m s 128 m s and 126 m s Resulting are lift forces of about 5000 N up to 9000 N marked green So a helicopter of five tons could hover Even if the big rotor would fail both smaller rotors could produce sufficient lift This engine could be build some smaller or could produce much more forces like mentioned upside Instead of the normal air pressure it could drive with thick air e g with rho 2 kg m 3 factor 1 5 At this advantageous bowl shape the difference of speeds will not be only 5 like calculated here but also 10 or even more factor 2 to 3 Resulting would be forces up to 40 kN opening quite new possibilities Energy Source Naturally now it seems mysterious from which energy source these forces might come The technique of conventional helicopters is quite natural the chemical energy of the fuel is transferred into mechanical motion and via rotor blades the air is pushed down so the weight of the aircraft is lifted If the rotor of a helicopter is 6 m long it covers a circle face of 113 m 2 Its weight of 3500 kg corresponds to an air volume of 2800 m 3 an air pile of 25 m height above the rotor face Permanently these air masses must be accelerated downward with hurricane speed However the air escapes any pressure so the efficiency is once more minor than at common energy transformations The air volume of all radial cone and bowl boxes of previous new helicopter conception are only 12 m 3 in total Each particle of that air mass of 10 kg is steady flying around with its molecular movement speed of some 500 m s Based on known formula E 0 5 m v 2 this corresponds to the huge energy of 1 250 000 J The particles hit on a wall however not right angle all times but in average by 45 degree so only with 0 7 of the perpendicular force The static pressure at a wall is with rho 1 25 kg m 3 and v 500 m s based on known formula P 0 5 rho v 2 thus 156250 N m 2 Factor 0 7 results the normal atmospheric pressure of roundabout 100000 N m 2 Only one hundredth part of these 1000 N m 2 are necessary for suitable lift and thrust forces like achieved at all engine variations discussed upside The air rotates within the disk shaped boxes The particles scratch along the walls by flat angle The perpendicular pressure is reduced Valid is the strong law of energy constant if a particles affects stronger pressure towards front side it can affect only less pressure aside Here the force of kinetic flow pressure is not used it s idle running just around circled tracks Indeed here is used only the side effect fast flows affect less static pressure aside than slower flows Only that secondary appearance is used here and that usage does not lessen the primary appearance of the idle running flow The enclosed air masses are put in rotation at the start of the system However at the slow starting no heat is added the molecular speed of particles is not accelerated as the particles follow the suction of rotor blades by themselves The energy of the air mass is still constant Only the original chaotic motion of the particles becomes ordered a little bit However even within a flow of 100 m s the particles crash around still by 500 m s only some more into a certain direction preferably circling along curved faces on and on Some energy input is demanded for starting the system or following accelerations

    Original URL path: http://www.evert.de/ap0516e.htm (2016-02-09)
    Open archived version from archive

  • evert äther-physik und -philosophie
    das Nichts real existent sein Absolut Spitze Sie sitzen in der hinteren Reihe eines Philosophie Kolloquiums und hören gespannt zu wie über die Erkenntnismöglichkeiten zum Seienden diskutiert wird 01 05 Raum und Zeit Realität oder nur abstrakte Begriffe Endlich Einstein verstehen Und ein literarisches Highlight dazu Muss man lesen 01 06 Grenzen oder grenzenlos Gibt es Teile oder nur ein Ganzes Verdammt harte Forderung denk nicht länger in Teilchen Die

    Original URL path: http://www.evert.de/ap01.htm (2016-02-09)
    Open archived version from archive

  • evert äther-physik und -philosophie
    sie überarbeitet und auf wesentliche Aussagen reduziert 02 01 Basis und Ziel Ausgangsbasis und Ziel dieses Abschnitts 02 02 Keine Längswelle Im Äther gibt es keine Logitudinalwellen 02 03 Keine Querwelle Im Äther gibt es keine Transveralwellen 02 04 Nicht Kreis Gerade Torus Weder kreisrunde noch gerade noch verschränkte Bewegung sind im Äther möglich 02 05 Keine stehende Welle Die Voraussetzungen dafür sind selten erfüllt 02 06 Spiralknäuel Grundlage der

    Original URL path: http://www.evert.de/ap02.htm (2016-02-09)
    Open archived version from archive



  •