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  • Durchqueren - fuer Buechner und Kleist - --------------------------------------------------------
    for Buechner and Kleist Durchqueren für Heinrich von Kleist diesen verdrängungslosen Künstler der in seinem Werk wie nie zuvor Raserei Somnambulismus Traum Affekten Raum gibt Für den die Welt die gesellschaftlichen Verhältnisse ganz unannehmbar waren für Georg Büchner der die Mechanismen das Mechanische unseres Seins erkannte das elende Reale das reale Elend Der die Gesellschaft ihre Körper sezierte Strukturen freilegte die auf eine Disponibilität für alles Ritualisierte und Zwanghafte schließen

    Original URL path: http://www.art-in-society.de/AS7/traverse/durchqueren.shtml (2016-04-25)
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  • Die Schrift / L'écriture - On Doris Schoettler-Boll's Durchqueren - fuer Buechner und Kleist---------------------------------------------------

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    Original URL path: /AS7/traverse/writing.shtml (2016-04-25)


  • A Plea for Supporting the Atelier House Alte Schule Essen - ---------------------------------------------------------------
    noch kurzfristig vergebenen Nutzungsverträge an Künstlerinnen standen jedoch die Räume im Erdgeschoss und 1 OG in den letzten Jahren leer und werden seither lediglich temporär für die Öffentlichkeitsarbeit von Doris Schöttler Boll und dem KUNSTRAUM e V genutzt Der Verein Der gemeinnützige Verein KUNSTRAUM e V wurde im Februar 2000 in der Alten Schule im Atelier von Doris Schöttler Boll gegründet Die heterogene Zusammensetzung Menschen unterschiedlichster Bereiche Künstler Architekten Professoren Hausfrauen Rentner Angestellte Arbeiter und Arbeitslose macht den Verein zu einem wichtigen Forum in dem der Austausch lebendig spannend und auch richtungsweisend ist für die Kunst und für das Leben So setzte man sich gemeinsam und offensiv erst einmal für den Erhalt der Alten Schule ein weil damit gleichermaßen objektive Lebensgeschichte und Erinnerung vor Ort also auch Steeler Identität verteidigt wurde gegen die Anonymität und Austauschbarkeit von Gebäuden wie dem Globus Center dem Kröger Gebäude den Hochhäusern und Parkhäusern Steeles Insbesondere die Bemühungen des Dipl Ing Architekten und Stadtplaners Erhard Becker einen Denkmalschutz für Haus und Hof zu bewirken möchten wir hier hervorheben Von Anbeginn an gehörte Erhard Becker auch dem Verein an Auch wenn die Schule nicht unter Denkmalschutz gestellt wurde so hat man mit diesen Bemühungen doch erreicht daß sie nicht abgerissen wird Und der Verein möchte auf jeden Fall eine historische Informationstafel anbringen mit der an die Geschichte von Haus und Hof erinnert wird Von Anfang an ging es dem KUNSTRAUM e V aber auch um die Erweiterung einer lebendigen Nutzung des Gebäudes der gesamten Anlage für Kunst Kultur und Begegnung So möchte man gegen die zunehmende Kommunikationslosigkeit in unserer Gesellschaft ein Gegengewicht schaffen Dazu brauchen wir die Kunst kreative Impulse kulturelle Vermittlung also etwas das nicht stillstellt und sprachlos macht sondern sensibilisiert und das Verständnis für gesellschaftliche Zusammenhänge vorantreibt Einen Presseartikel zur Vereinsgründung die Satzung des Vereins und einen Brief vom 16 April 2002 an den Regierungspräsidenten Abt Denkmalpflege in Düsseldorf der einen Einblick in die Geschichte der Alten Schule gibt legen wir bei Das Nutzungskonzept Zweiteilung Öffentlicher Bereich Ateliers Das Nutzungskonzept geht aus von dem programmatischen Entwurf für den schon der Name des Ortes eintritt Atelierhaus für Kunst Medien Kommunikation es soll hier einen Ort der Kunst aber auch der Neuen Medien und nicht zuletzt weiterhin einen Ort lebendiger Kommunikation geben Die Medien Film und Video analoge aber auch digitale Bilder sind in der Kunst von Bedeutung Eine Osmose zwischen den Formen des Experimentellen Films und des Dokumentarfilms findet bereits statt und soll hier im Hause auch reflektiert werden Die gängigen Dokumentationen leiden gerade daran daß sie auf ästhetische Möglichkeiten des Films als Kunstform nur allzu oft und allzu unnötig verzichten Eine sich von der Kommunikation über sich selbst und die gesellschaftlichen Verhältnisse aus der sie erwächst abschottende Kunst gerät nicht nur in Gefahr von vielen Menschen als elitär angesehen zu werden sondern auch jener Impulse verlustig zu gehen die sie lebendig sein lassen kontrovers intervenierend verändernd Der Verein plädiert deshalb dafür daß innovativen KünstlerInnen gerade auch aus den Bereichen Neue Medien Video Computer Kunst experimenteller und oder Dokumentarfilm im Atelierhaus für Kunst Medien und Kommunikation ein Raum im 1 OG auf Nebenkostenbasis als Arbeitsstätte Atelier zur Verfügung gestellt wird Der zweite Raum im 1 OG sollte im übrigen an eine Künstlerin oder einen Künstler der Sparte Objektkunst Installation vergeben werden wobei Antragsteller Vorrang haben sollen die mit ihrer Arbeit bereits in den Außenbereich den Natur oder Stadtraum gehen Das Gartenhaus für dessen Sanierung wir uns um Sponsoren bemühen würden könnte einem jungen Künstler als Arbeits und Wohnstätte zur Verfügung gestellt werden Dieses Konzept hat sich bereits im Fall der Künstlerin Doris Schöttler Boll die das 2 OG mehrperspektivisch das heißt für ihre Öffentlichkeitsarbeit und für ihre künstlerische Arbeit nutzt als außerordentlich produktiv und wegweisend erwiesen Die Bedeutung der Öffentlichkeitsarbeit für das Atelierhaus Das Erdgeschoß sollte für die Öffentlichkeitsarbeit vorgesehen werden Denn wie sich bereits gezeigt hat hängt gerade auch von diesem Aspekt ein Stück weit die Vitalität des Atelierhauses für Kunst Medien Kommunikation ab Diese Akzentsetzung liegt nicht nur im Interesse der an Kunst sowie an Kommunikation über ihre Bedeutung für sie selbst wie überhaupt für unsere Gesellschaft interessierten Bewohner des Stadtteils Steele und der Stadt Essen Es kommt auch den hier arbeitenden KünstlerInnen zugute wenn sie die Möglichkeit zum Austausch mit einem potentiellen Publikum beim Schopf greifen und den Elfenbeinturm in den sich viele so gern zurückziehen hinter sich lassen können Gerade die Intervention der bereits im Hause lebenden und arbeitenden Künstlerin Doris Schöttler Boll hat uns gezeigt daß das Interesse der Menschen an der Kunst und am Atelierhaus geweckt werden kann Die Zahl der Menschen die so durch ihre Aktivitäten im öffentlichen Bereich in den sie Teile des 2 O G immer wieder verwandelte erreichen konnte ist beträchtlich Besucher Gäste Teilnehmer an Workshops an Gesprächskreisen Akteure ihrer Veranstaltungen junge KünstlerInnen Filmschaffende und Dichter fanden sich ein Übers Jahr gerechnet dürften es nicht weniger gewesen sein als etwa die Besucher des Palastes der Projekte von Kabakov auf Zollverein Dieser Ansatz darf nicht verloren gehen die hinzukommenden Künstler und Künstlerinnen sollten ihn sich auf ihre Weise zu eigen machen Es erscheint uns daher unverzichtbar daß es einen öffentlichen Bereich einen Bereich der Kommunikation und auch der künstlerischen Projektarbeit und nicht allein Arbeitsräume für die KünstlerInnen im Atelierhaus gibt Projekte Über informelle Gespräche und Kontakte hinaus waren und sind bisher schon immer wieder auch anspruchsvolle Projekte ein Markenzeichen des Atelierhauses gewesen Zu den in dieser Hinsicht bislang realisierten wegweisenden Ansätzen gehört die von Doris Schöttler Boll initiierte und durchgeführte ein überaus breites Spektrum von Themen und Erkenntnisgegenständen abdeckende Veranstaltungsreihe Personen Projekte Perspektiven mit ihrem starken auch überregionalen Echo während gleichzeitig nicht wenige dieser Veranstaltungen bei denen es immer wieder um die Kunst im weitesten Sinne um Theorie ästhetische Erfahrung Philosophie um die verschiedensten Bereiche der Kunst bis hin zur Filmkunst und Dichtkunst geht auch bei Bürgern im Viertel in unserer Stadt großen Anklang finden Es gehört dazu ihr Projekt Klappe auf Raum für bewegte Bilder Hier geht es darum daß man sich dank DVD und Video ausgewählte Filme ansehen öfter ansehen kann um das eigene Sehen zu verifizieren es zu reflektieren und darüber zu kommunizieren Unterstützung bekommt man vom Institut für Medienwissenschaft an der Ruhr Universität Bochum Aber auch das von ihr initiierte Projekt Greencard ist zu nennen das jungen sich mit großer Lebendigkeit artikulierenden Menschen ja zum Teil vielleicht bald schon neue Wege gehenden jedoch noch unbekannten Künstlern des Reviers eine Plattform bieten möchte Und wenn sich in ihrem Salon des 21 Jahrhunderts zu dem ihre Räume immer wieder werden Gäste wie jetzt der Verleger Erich Brinkmann Brinkmann Bose oder der Hölderlin Herausgeber D E Sattller aber auch Künstler Dichter Filmmacher junge Wissenschaftler und Menschen die nicht zum akademischen und künstlerischen Milieu gehören zum Gedankenaustausch einfinden so gibt es doch auch Raum und Anregung genug für andere Aktivitäten Projekte man denke an das Lektüre und Buchillustrations Projekt mit Kindern das in Zusammenarbeit mit einer Illustratorin und einer Buchhändlerin über mehrere Monate im Jahr 2000 durchgeführt wurde Und immer wieder macht sie Exkursionen mit den Menschen des Stadtteils wie auch den Gästen der Veranstaltungsreihe Personen Projekte Perspektiven Zuletzt war es der Besuch der Ausstellung Keep the faith von Diana Thater in Siegen die Ausstellung und Film Werkschau von Matthew Barney in Köln sah man sich gemeinsam an wie auch die große Surrealismus Ausstellung in Düsseldorf Eine mehrtägige Fahrt nach Kassel zur Documenta XI wurde ebenfalls realisiert Zu nennen sind hier des weiteren die Projekte des Dipl Ing Architekten und Stadtplaners Erhard Becker so sein Projekt eines Bürger Kunst Gartens sowie sein Projekt einer sechskantigen Lifaßsäule im Rahmen des Wettbewerbs Das verrückte Stadtteil Ding und nicht zuletzt sein Entwurf einer Bauhütte für eine schönere Welt die im Gartenhaus auf dem Schulgelände neben einem kleinen Sommer Café einmal ihren Ort haben soll Zu erinnern ist auch an die Gesprächsrunde zur Geschichte des Viertels und an den großen Widerhall den das bürgerschaftliche Engagement der KünstlerInnen und übrigen Vereinsmitglieder vor Ort also im Stadtteil und darüber hinaus in Essen und im Revier findet Welche weiteren Projekte sich in diesem und im nächsten Jahr entwickeln werden hängt davon ab welche Künstlerinnen und Künstler für die Tätigkeit im Atelierhaus gewonnen werden und welche Konzeptionen in dieser Hinsicht sie entwickeln bzw welche Schwerpunkte sie setzen Dabei ist nicht nur an diejenigen KünstlerInnen gedacht die Arbeitsräume Ateliers im Hause erhalten werden Auch nicht im Atelierhaus über Räume verfügende KünstlerInnen also Externe sollen das ist ein Kernstück der Vorstellungen des Vereins zur Nutzung der Alten Schule immer wieder eingeladen werden hier in Steele im Atelierhaus für Kunst Medien Kommunikation aktiv zu werden also über Fragen der Kunst in unserem Leben unserer Stadt dem Revier der Gesellschaft die gerade solcher Impulse so sehr bedarf zu den Menschen zu sprechen oder auch Resultate ihrer künstlerischen Arbeit vorzustellen Der public space im Erdgeschoss wird also auch für sie das Forum sein um sich den Menschen im Stadtteil aber auch Besuchern von außerhalb zuzuwenden Das Prinzip aller Aktivitäten im Haus soll das ist uns sehr wichtig die Autonomie der KünstlerInnen ihre volle Eigenverantwortung für ihre Projekte ihre Arbeit ihre Interventionen sein Zur Ateliervergabe Die Auswahl der KünstlerInnen Der Stellenwert den wir der Intervention im öffentlichen Bereich zumessen macht auch klar daß wir uns engagierte KünstlerInnen wünschen Entscheidend bei der Auswahl der KünstlerInnen welche der Verein treffen möchte sollte deshalb neben dem künstlerischen Format der Bewerber die Bereitschaft zu öffentlichen Aktivitäten im Atelierhaus und somit zu einem Engagement im Stadtteil sein Eine aktive Mitarbeit der im Hause tätigen Künstlerinnen und Künstler an der Arbeit des Vereins ist nicht nur wünschenswert sondern unabdingbare Voraussetzung für die Aufnahme in das Atelierhaus Die Erklärung einer entsprechenden Bereitschaft ist daher eine der Voraussetzungen für die Ateliervergabe Sonstige Bedingungen der Ateliervergabe haftungsrechtliche Fragen Wir gehen davon aus daß über die Zahlung der Nebenkosten keine Kosten auf die KünstlerInnen zukommen an die Ateliers vergeben werden Ansonsten sollten sich die Bedingungen der Stadt gegenüber dem Verein bzw den mit einem Atelier bedachten KünstlerInnen analog zu jenen gestalten die für das Kunsthaus vereinbart wurden Dies insbesondere auch hinsichtlich der haftungsrechtlichen Fragen Präsenz und Aufgaben des Vereins im Atelierhaus Der Verein hofft über die Nutzung der Postanschrift des Atelierhauses hinaus demnächst auch in Gestalt eines kleinen Büros im Hause präsent zu sein Zu den Aufgaben des Vereins gehört daß er auf Antrag Fördermittel für die im Atelierhaus stattfindenden Projekte der hier arbeitenden aber auch auswärtiger hier eine Veranstaltung durchführender KünstlerInnen beantragt und diese als offizieller Träger der Aktivitäten des Hauses den durchführenden und inhaltlich verantwortlich zeichnenden KünstlerInnen zur Verfügung stellt Die Anträge sind dem Verein zur Weiterleitung Beantragung der Fördermittel vorzulegen die Rechnungsführung über die Verwendung der Mittel ist von den jeweils Geförderten zu leisten und dem Verein vorzulegen der die Daten in seine Buchführung über die beantragten Mittel und ihre Verwendung nach Prüfung übernimmt Der Verein respektiert die Autonomie der KünstlerInnen und ihre Eigenverantwortung für ihre künstlerische Arbeit einschließlich ihrer Projekte im Rahmen der Öffentlichkeitsarbeit Die Koordinierung von Veranstaltungen im Atelierhaus wird der Verein übernehmen den Kontakt zu den Menschen des Viertels dieser Stadt halten und ausbauen auch durch die Mitarbeit in der Steeler Bürgerschaft Der Verein möchte darüber hinaus die Räumlichkeiten im Erdgeschoss auch anderen Institutionen wie z B VHS AWO für Kursangebote und Bildungsurlaube zur Verfügung stellen Vorstellbar wäre auch die Durchführung von Workshops des tpz Theaterpädagogisches Zentrum im GREND wie auch des Kufos Kulturforum Steele bei Raumengpässen in den eigenen Häusern Der Verein Tarantel e V der über keine eigenen Ausstellungs und Veranstaltungsräume verfügt ist für die Umsetzung von Projektplanungen oft auf der Suche nach geeigneten temporär nutzbaren Räumen Der Kontakt zu Schulen Kirchengemeinden wird gesucht um auch dort anregend und mit initiierend im Hinblick auf gemeinsame Aktivitäten hier im Atelierhaus zu sein Vom Eigenverständnis her begreift sich somit der KUNSTRAUM e V eben auch als Relais Station das heißt er möchte auch interessierte Bürger auf Veranstaltungen und Kursangebote in anderen Häusern aufmerksam machen wie dem GREND dem KUNSTHAUS ESSEN dem Museum Folkwang der Volkshochschule um so eine Vernetzung ein Netzwerk konkret werden zu lassen Für die zentrale Koordinierung aller Aktivitäten was eine Programmgestaltung impliziert ist ein kleiner Raum im 1 OG als Büro des KUNSTRAUM e V mit Telefon Fax PC mit Internetanschluß wie auch einem Kopierer vorgesehen Einen Grundriss und Raumnutzungsplan Erdgeschoss 1 Obergeschoss und Gartenhaus legen wir unserem Nutzungsantrag mit hinzu Der Kostenplan a für die laufenden Kosten Eine detaillierte Aufstellung der Unterhaltskosten die in Anlehnung an die entsprechenden Positionen für das 2 OG erstellt wurde liegt als Anlage bei Dieser ist zu entnehmen daß jährliche Kosten von ca 3 200 Euro pro Etage anfallen Wir möchten darum bitten daß die zu zahlenden Nebenkosten für die Künstler die hier im 1 OG zwei der ehemaligen Klassenräume als Atelier in Zukunft nutzen werden sich analog denen des KUNSTHAUSES in der Rübezahlstraße gestalten Und daß dies ebenso für das EG unser Areal für die Öffentlichkeitsarbeit gelten kann Die von uns selbst erwirtschafteten Beträge z B durch die Vermietung von Räumen und Außenanlage für Festivitäten möchten wir gerne für die Ausstattung des Hauses einsetzen b für die nutzungsadäquate Rest Instandsetzung Die Schule befindet sich in einen Zustand der eine sofortige Erweiterung der Nutzung zuläßt Wir möchten daran erinnern daß die Stadt vor Jahren für eine Dacheindeckung und Dachstuhl teilsanierung einschließlich der Gauben gesorgt und die notwendigen Klempnerarbeiten hat durchführen lassen Kosten ca 350 000 DM Frau Schöttler Boll deren Unkündbarkeit laut Rechtsexpertise durch die Stadt Essen gewährleistet ist hat das 2 OG unter denkmalpflegerischen Gesichtspunkten saniert Gegenwert 230 000 DM Rest Instandsetzungen können daher sukzessive erfolgen KünstlerInnen die jetzt Atelierräume beziehen könnten diese zum Beispiel renovieren und entsprechend ihren Bedürfnissen herrichten ohne dabei die bauliche Grundsubstanz zu verändern Der Stadt möchten wir vorschlagen daß sie die notwendigen Arbeiten an der Aussenfassade und den Fenstern vornimmt Eine Kostenschätzung vom 17 09 03 in Höhe von ca 30 600 Euro für eine denkmalgerechte Überarbeitung der neugotischen Fassade legen wir mit bei Essen Steele im September 2004 DIE ZUKÜNFTIGE NUTZUNG DER EHEM PESTALOZZISCHULE SAMT GRUNDSTÜCK ALS ATELIERHAUS FÜR KUNST MEDIEN UND KOMMUNIKATION Vorschläge des KUNSTRAUM ALTE SCHULE e V Mai 2006 Wir plädieren hier für ein Atelierhaus für Kunst Medien und Kommunikation als Ort für Kunst und Leben Ort der Begegnung und der Gespräche auch der Debatten Wobei wir Kommunikation nicht im Sinne der Kommunikations wissenschaften als abstraktes Sender Empfänger Modell verstehen sondern wie Luhmann als Wunder der Natur Und was das Verhältnis von Kunst und Medien betrifft so wissen wir daß heute nicht mehr nur Gemälde und Zeichnungen ins Zentrum der Aufmerksamkeit gerückt werden sondern Film Video und computergenerierte Bilder Aber zugleich auch die Worte die Sprache die Literatur Deshalb ist es von Belang hier einen interdisziplinären Ansatz zu entwickeln Nachdem wir bereits mehrfach der Stadt Essen als Eigentümer der ehem Pestalozzischule von 1899 Nutzungsanträge mit detaillierten Vorschlägen zur Nutzung incl Kostenaufstellung vorgelegt haben möchten wir unsere Nutzungsvorschläge jetzt kurz zusammenfassen Unser Konzept folgt dem Leitgedanken einer Kunst im Kontext einer Kunst die sich der alltäglichen Wirklichkeit gegenüber öffnet Wir gehen deshalb aus von einem weitgefaßten Kunstbegriff einer ästhetischen Praxis die nicht immer gleichbedeutend mit Kunst ist aber ganz entschieden mit Form zu tun hat Und wir wünschen uns Künstler in einem lebendigen Kunst und Atelierhaus die das Zusammenspiel mit dem sozialen Umfeld suchen die sich als vitaler Bestandteil der kulturellen und sozialen Infrastruktur des Viertels begreifen und die auch das kreative Vermögen seiner Bewohner um hier einen zentralen Begriff Hölderlins aufzugreifen als wichtige Ressource und sozialen Zusammenhalt stiftendes Potential erachten Es ging und geht um die Reaktivierung des Erdgeschosses und ersten Obergeschosses des Atelierhauses im ehemaligen Schulgebäude Gebäudegrundriß 16 60 x 14 40m sowie des Schulgeländes 55 m x 46 m also ca 2500 qm Fläche das meiste davon Grünfläche mit wertvollem Baumbestand Es ging bislang ferner um die Nutzung des Gartenhauses 6 60 x 5 50 m also 33 qm Grundfläche das sinnloserweise schon beseitigt wurde und an dessen Stelle ein Neubau sich anbietet Wir beginnen mit unseren Vorschlägen für den Neubau an der Stelle des Gartenhauses für das der Architekt Stadtplaner Dipl Ing Erhard Becker einen ökologischen Ausbau u a mit Solartechnik und Regenwasser betriebene Toiletten Strom war bereits vorhanden konzipiert hatte Das neue Konzept geht von einer erweiterten Grundfläche 66 qm oder größer aus sowie von einem mindestens eingeschossigen besser aus EG und 1 OG bestehenden Gebäude Der Nutzungsvorschlag des KUNSTRAUM Alte Schule e V sieht dafür vor Im EG a eine kleine Apartmentwohnung für einen Rentner oder Arbeitslosen der für Haus und Hof sowie die Pflege des Bürger Kunst Gartens zuständig ist b einen Werkstatt bzw Atelierraum für die Arbeit mit Jugendlichen Bearbeiten von Themen aus den Bereichen Stadtplanung Architektur Ökologie Malwerkstatt Leseraum also mit einem Wort multifunktionale Nutzung Im OG könnten wir uns 1 Stadtplanungs oder Architekturbüro vorstellen Oder alternativ 1 Wohnung für eine kinderreiche Familie Die Garten bzw Hoffläche Der Grünplan weist diese als eine der wenigen Grünflächen im Steeler Rott aus Der Baumbestand ist erhaltenswert Unser Konzept ist das eines Bürger und Kunstgartens Schon der Bildhauer Lungwitz hatte den Schulgarten als Kunstgarten genutzt das Konzept wollen wir fortführen und dahingehend erweitern daß es auch ein die Kommunikation im Viertel bereichernder nicht nur im engen Sinne kultureller Treffpunkt für die Bürger sein kann und im Grunde schon ist wie die hier bereits in den letzten Jahren durchgeführten Feste Veranstaltungen mit Kindern Jugendlichen usw usf deutlich zeigen Hier sollen sich auch diejenigen aus dem Viertel die keinen Garten haben sonnen können hier soll man sich eine Zeitung aus der Bibliothek im Kunst und Atelierhaus holen und sie bei schönem Wetter draußen sitzend lesen können Menschen sollen ins Gespräch kommen können auch immer wieder wenn es sich ergibt mit den Künstlern in diesem Kunst und Atelierhaus das sich auf viele Weisen den Menschen öffnet Das Schulgebäude Gebäudegrundriß 16 60 x 14 40m ist und war bereits zur Zeit des Künstlers Lungwitz ein Atelierhaus ein Haus der Kunst ein Haus in dem auch Workshops Lesungen und Musikveranstaltungen stattfanden Daran wird angeknüpft Im EG könnte übrigens das Klassenzimmer zum Garten hin eine sich

    Original URL path: http://www.art-in-society.de/AS7/AH1/atelierhaus.html (2016-04-25)
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  • A New Artistic Form of Political Theater: The Clown Army Happenings in Germany - ----------------------------------------------------------
    need for stars and big names 2 Instead of following old aesthetic recipes and striving for recognition as serious artists which is the traditional way of building careers in the world of theater the need to merge politics and art poetry and protest is felt by them and it becomes a driving force 3 A German daily the Suddeutsche Zeitung recently described a happening that young artists attached to the concept of a Clown Army staged in the Rhenanian city of Cologne a town which is also well known because of the Cologne Art Fair Happening artists occupied a ring road circling the downtown section of the city focusing their action on a sculpture entitled Non circulating traffic which became a non verbal center of the happening A central aesthetic and political aspect of this happening was the quest to transcend the separation between actors and the audience The actors or clowns of a clown army succeeded to involve people from the neighborhood and pedestrians passing the scene Young and old people from adjacent buildings brought chairs and table and the ring road became the location of a neighborhood fest Not a commercialized October fest but a festival of opposition against traffic pollution against decades of political cronyism in Cologne In fact some maintain that the Cologne city hall a mess described here as Koelsche Klungel could perhaps be described as a kind of Tammany Hall and this regardless of the political affiliation of the mayor If this political happening transcended the real of pure art it proved nonetheless lively and inventive And it was a success considering the fact that bystanders and people passing by strangers new in the city and people from the neighborhood were taken in by the convincing gestures grimaces acts of derision ridicule and subversive immitation of Prussian authority and joined the game of fun loving art and spontaneous civil disobedience an entirely humorous and funnily anarchist play with art and words and body movements that for a few hours took possession of a part of the city of Cologne giving it back to the people of the neighborhood the people who live there A highly symbolic act which again shows that all good and noteworthy art especially political art is largely symbolic expressing needs desires hopes that remain as yet unfulfilled and that are recalled and thus made conscious 4 To attain the reality of what is lacking what is behind the quest expressed by such forms of art of course takes more than art it takes political determination and political action on a wider scale Regrettably the police department in Cologne was not amused as the Suddeutsche Zeitung noted The same negative reaction to subversive street art was typical of the authorities in the state of Mecklenburg Vorpommern where clown army artists targeted the G 8 meeting at Heiligendam The press has variously noted the enormous deployment of the military and secret service personnel in addition to thousands of para military police officers

    Original URL path: http://www.art-in-society.de/AS7/ClownArmy/ClownArmy.shtml (2016-04-25)
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  • Pavel Branko, Selected Essays on Film As An Art Form
    reality of real socialism As a consequence he gave up any attempt to publish film criticism between 1952 and 1955 and reverted to the business of translation instead In the sixties known as the period of the Czechoslovak film miracle he eagerly took part in the movement and lived the most productive time of his life He took part in the Prague Spring in 1968 and shared many of the

    Original URL path: http://www.art-in-society.de/AS1/Branko/BrankoP.html (2016-04-25)
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  • Wim Umboh, progressive Indonesian filmmaker --------------------------------------------------------
    was it Nancy This must have been in the early 1960s It was subsequent to his stays abroad that he did Matjan Kemajaran 1965 considered by a number of critics as his first really important film His films leave the viewer confronted with a cinema that neither copies MOSFILM productions nor the French nouvelle vague The extent to which his filmic work is rooted in Indonesian culture and reflects the Indonesian situation Indonesian contradictions Indonesian needs of the many is unmistakable But so is his capacity to integrate formal cinematic means developed outside Indonesia Wim Umboh clearly attempted to respond to a need of the masses in a country like Indonesia to have their own organic intellectuals to borrow a term suggested by Gramsci He closely observed the common people But he also said in an interview that we must not idolize the masses To make his point he mentioned how in his film Kembang Kembang Plastik the life of a pickpocket is taken by an angry mob because this petty crook had just stolen a wallet This shows the negative side of the people in an extreme situation On the whole however Umboh was far from being too much of a skeptic let alone misanthropic He strove to be a critical realist who isn t afraid of giving his audience a chance to laugh or to respect their fondness of melodramatic elements In his movies he gently and with a lot of tender humor laid bare their weaknesses their deformations their alienation Not in any way denouncing them But filled by a knowledge or a belief and this strengthened their and our trust that the better part of them their integrity their good heart their natural but as yet often stifled intelligence would in the end justify a certain measure of hope It was probably not infrequent that he had to take account of or struggle in intelligent and satirical ways against the bias and ill will of censors The presence of censorship was a cumbersome fact for filmmakers like Wim Umboh especially in the Suharto era He was not kept by the censors from making films They posed a challenge to his intelligence his wit his capacity to produce satire masking revealing observations and sharp criticism as light But when his film Kembang Kembang Plastik was to be shown by him during the Taipei International Film Festival in 1978 the Kuomintang s G I O or Government Information Office an agency officially entrusted with censureship in Taiwan and inofficially having hundreds if not thousands of informers on its paylist decided that the film should not be screened It was in fact a scandal to ban the Indonesian entry during the festival Taiwanese cinéastes among them Lee Daw Ming succeeded however to arrange for a private screening in a preview house attended by interested journalists When Wim Umboh made Kembang Kembang Plastik in 1977 he had already made or worked on nearly 30 films among them Istana Yang Hilang

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  • Wim Umboh - filmography ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    T INTERNATIONAL ARIES ANGKASA FILM P T INSANTRA FILM SMILE ON A DECEMBER MORNING 1975 WIM UMBOH Director Country Indonesia see also SENYUM DIPAGI BULAN SEPTEMBER 1974 SMILES ON A SEPTEMBER MORNING SESUATU YANG INDAH 1976 SESUATU YANG INDAH SENSUATAU YANG INDAH SOMETHING BEAUTIFUL WIM UMBOH Director Length 108 Minutes Country Indonesia Actors CHRISTINE HAKIM MARINI ROY MARTEN BROERY PESOLIMA NICO PELAMONIA FADLY INE MEMBRASAR YAN BASTIAN Director WIM UMBOH Director of Photography LUKMAN HAKIM NAIN Composer IDRIS SARDI Companies P T INTERNATIONAL ARIES ANGKASA FILM PELITA AIR SERVICE KEMBANG KEMBANG PLASTIK 1977 PLASTIC FLOWERS Director WIM UMBOH Length 110 Minutes Country Indonesia Actors YATIE OCTAVIA ULLY ARTHA NENNY TRIANA RAHAYU EFFENDI ENNY KUSRINI M PANDJI ANOM COK SIMBARA MARULI SITOMPUL NURNANINGSIH DIEN NOVITA ALWI OSLAN ROY MARTEN Director WIM UMBOH Director of Photography LUKMAN HAKIM NAIN Composer IDRIS SARDI Company P T JAYA BERSAUDARA FILM KUGAPAI CINTAMU 1977 WIM UMBOH Director Length 117 Minutes Country Indonesia Actors JENNY RACHMAN COK SIMBARA LENNY MARLINA MIA KUMALA ROY MARTEN UMAR KAYAM KOMALASARI M PANDJI ANOM BAGONG KUSSUDIARDJO AWANG DARMAWAN RUTH PELUPESSY DORMAN BORISMAN Director WIM UMBOH Director of Photography LUKMAN HAKIM NAIN Composer IDRIS SARDI Companies P T BHASKARA INDAH CINE FILM P T INTERNATIONAL ARIES ANGKASA FILM PENGEMIS DAN TUKANG BECAK 1978 THE BEGGAR AND THE RICKSHAW DRIVER Die Bettlerin und der Rikschafahrer WIM UMBOH Director Screen Play WIM UMBOH Length 115 Minutes Country Indonesia Genre Melodrame Actors CHRISTINE HAKIM ULLY ARTHA DICKY ZULKARNAEN AJENG TRIANI SARDI as Ajeng ALAN NUARI CHRIS STEVEN HENRY SUSANTO LUKMAN SARDI Director WIM UMBOH Director of Photography LUKMAN HAKIM NAIN Composer IDRIS SARDI Producer HAKIM MANSUN Company P T Jaya Bersaudara Film Screened by Second German Public Television ZDF on June 11 1986 Erstaufführung 11 6 1986 ZDF Eine junge Haushälterin und Amme wird vom Hausherrn fast vergewaltigt und Um Mehr Info über diesen Films sehen zu können müssen Sie bei www FILME vonA Z de eingeloggt sein http filmevona z de filmsuche cfm wert 3661 sucheNach titel CT 1 THE PEDICAB DRIVER 1979 WIM UMBOH Director DI SINI CINTA PERTAMA KALI BERSEMI 1980 WIM UMBOH Director Length 144 Minutes Country Indonesia Actors WIDYAWATI ROY MARTEN DINA MARIANA CHRIS SALAM RIMA MELATI RAHAYU EFFENDI AWANG DARMAWAN RD MOCHTAR ZAINAL ABIDIN ABDI WIYONO ADE IRAWAN OLOAN SITOMPUL Director WIM UMBOH Director of Photography AKIN Composer SUDHARNOTO Companies P T SANGGAR FILM P T ELANG PERKASA FILM LOVE BLOSSOMS FOR THE FIRST TIME 1980 WIM UMBOH Director WHEN LOVE BREAKS THROUGH 1980 WIM UMBOH Director HIDUP TANPA KEHORMATAN 1981 WIM UMBOH Director Country Indonesia Actors GINA ADRIANA AWANG DARMAWAN JUNAEDY SALAT PAULA RUMOKOY YATTI SURACHMAN ZAINAL ABIDIN EVA ARNAZ YOSANA SANUSI TEDDY MALA M PANDJI ANOM BRAM ADRIANTO ALEX KALANGI Director WIM UMBOH Director of Photography HARRY SIMON Composer YUL FIRMANSYAH Company P T YOUNG BROS FILM PUTRI SEORANG JENDRAL 1981 THE GENERAL S DAUGHTER WIM UMBOH Director Length 116 Minutes Country Indonesia Actors ZAINAL ABIDIN TITIEN SUHERMAN TUTI INDRA MALAON ADI KURDI DYAN HASRI CHINTAMI

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  • now is still called Duwet On the old map of 1847 the street was ending at Kali Semarang Along this street there were and still are many duwet trees The long Java War from 1825 till 1830 that cost so much depleting the government s budget affected Semarang and left behind an economy in decline In order to launch a recovery from this immense economic problem at the end of the war the Dutch government launched the Cultuur Stelsel or Cultivation system a system of heavy handedly enforced cultivation of export crops The native farmers were forced to plant export crops prescribed by the government on one fifth of their fields or else work for 66 days in a governmental firm This system oppressed the people and lead to a marked decline of their purchasing power In the context of this system they were poor and could not buy import goods or other commodities from the Dutch importers based in Java Although the government made a profit on the export crops the fact of continuous weak purchasing power of the people at large meant that the economic condition did not really improve and the colonial government was still in the red PANGLAYKIM in TAN 1979 76 In 1847 the present form of Semarang can clearly be scrutinized with the Bojongscheweg as the main street starting from the South and leading to the North The street was built by Daendels 1808 1811 as part of the great mail road De groote post weg connecting Anyer in the Western part of Java and Panarukan in the East for purposes of military defense as already stated The opening of the Bojong Street had a clear impact inducing a development of Semarang towards the West Meanwhile to the South there was Mataram street The two roads were very important in making Semarang the place which would accumulate crops from the hinterland They formed the structure of modern Semarang as a meeting point of the three directions from the East from the West and from the South Along these two streets emerged secondary streets such as Duwet street connecting Bojongscheweg to the bank of the Semarang River as mentioned above fig 5 On the map giving the situation of 1847 which was drawn in 1923 we can see the old town of Semarang where the Dutch lived and worked Looking at this map we can see that the railway as well as the East and West Banjir canal had not yet been built The city limit to the south was still constituted by the Bergota Hill which was part of the mountainous area in the interior of Java To the East the city limit was Mataram street and on both of its sides was still empty land To the West the city limit Page 6 was Poncolscheweg which was also an empty road Outside the city there were rice fields and fish ponds The city center was still the Dutch quarter on the map it was identified as the stad or city Hence different from the physical boundaries mentioned above the administrative boundary of Semarang was still the limit of the Dutch quarter it was the city of Semarang The Chinese settlement the area of the indigenous Javanese regent the Kampung Melayu and the Arab quarter at Mataram street were all considered villages they lay outside the city boundary In view of such a perception how could the Dutch enlarge the city towards the south in 1916 In 1866 a new canal was built for a new harbour 6 It took the flow of Semarang River that was already shallow 6As a new modern harbour the Dutchman built a railroad connecting Semarang to the interior which made the transportation of crops to the harbour so much easier As the city had reached the old fortress at sleko this fortress was replaced by a new fortress in the west of Semarang The new fortress was called Fort Prins van Orange orange being the colour of the Dutch Kingdom The fortress was built in part underground hence the people of Semarang called it Benteng Pendem On the Map of 1866 we can see that there is a Chinese quarter to the west of Semarang River The Mataram street area by that time had been developed and Mataram Street was lined with houses which were inhibited by the indigenous Javanese However the city limit to the South was still the Semarang River New streets in the East had come into being such as Karreweg at present Dr Cipto Street as a tissue that was parallel to Mataram street In between the two parallel streets emerged urban kampongs There was also Dutch cemetery at this side The estuary or end of Karreweg was at the road to Gubug in the Southeastern part of Semarang To the West the city was still bordered by Poncolscheweg where a new urban kampong emerged gradually At the street crossing of Poncolscheweg and Bojongscheweg the city government built a road to the south as the beginning of the road to Candi in the hilly area The railway was built connecting Semarang to the interior in the South The railway station was not in the city center but near the new harbour called Kali Baru fig 6 The road to Gubug was still passing through rice fields and empty land We can deduce from this map however that Semarang was already a regional city The city of Semarang was configured along the Semarang River which was the first primary element 7 of the city Urban development took place along this river hence the morphology of the city ran also along the river The second primary element was Poncolscheweg connecting the city center with the villages to the west of the city The third primary element was Pengapon street connecting the city with villages to the East The three primary elements were the embryo of a city development that kept the city sprawling toward the villages The modern city of Semarang began with the opening up of primary elements Bojongscheweg the new haven harbour canal and the railway In addition the establishment of a postal or mail service created easier communication to Semarang and increase the role of the city in regional affairs In the meantime the Dutch fortress on the Eastern bank of the Semarang River was not a primary element of the city At first it was a magnet of development especially with respect to the Dutch settlement When this fortress was closed and its location was made available for settlement enlargement while a new fortress Fort Prins van Orange was built at Poncolscheweg we can see that the fortress was only a secondary element as a dwelling area 6 Source map of 1866 by GPF Cronenberg Platteqrond der stad Samarang diterbitkan oleh DoOroot Kolf en Co Samarang 7 Primary elements play the decisive role in the formation and constitution of a town They are permanent through the history Although some of them do not fulfill their propelling function anymore it is their form we are still experiencing See also ROSSI 1975 p 61 and also PGC team 1986 p 8 Page 7 The existence of the market dates back to a local market that was at first serving the inhabitants of the city following the development of Semarang as a modern city the function of the market changed It became a regional market located at the bank of the Semarang River A market is usually a secondary element in the context of Semarang this market became a primary element as the dynamo of urban economics growth As a whole within a period of slightly less than 2 centuries Semarang grew only in a radius of 2 km Nevertheless there are still urban kampongs and areas occupied by squatters that is to say the poorest of the poor which are in very bad condition In the period under review urban kampongs surrounded the city of Semarang which on the other hand boasted beautiful classical buildings The last layer consisted of rice fields to the South East and West whereas to the North there were fish ponds fig 15 a b c C The Growth of a Modern City In Semarang modern facilities such as a hospital churches and hotels were built as the city experienced an economic boom beginning in 1870 New offices were built along Bojongscheweg and large houses were constructed along Pontjolscheweg On the other hand the part inhibited by the indigenous Javanese population that was surrounding the regent s palace was not developed and stayed in a state of stagnant sleepiness The same thing happened to the Chinese settlement that faced stagnation An urban kampong emerged along Mataram Street that gradually became densely populated On the map of 1892 we can see that Semarang had by that time been equipped with a city tram connecting the city and the suburb 8 A large railway line was built at Jurnatan Street located in the south of the Dutch quarter Hence the availability of transportation from the city of Semarang to Jomblang in the south and Bulu in the West became a daily fact The dwelling area between the Fort named Prince van Orange and the city center had gradually become densely populated too A large urban kampong appeared in between Bojonghscheweg and Pontjolscheweg The extension of Mataram Street that was climbing the hill had been constructed and it attracted new settlements that grew in the hilly area This road became an artery road to the South and it also became the primary element of several cities and towns in the interior Meanwhile along Karreweg that ran parallel to Mataram Street the Dutch built their villas The city government also built a prison on this street The artery street connecting Semarang and Batavia had not been connected to the road to Gubug but ran at the foot of the hills to Jomblang fig 15 At present it is called Sriwijaya Street The old urban center where the Dutch built their fortress is now an area of offices On the map we can see that Semarang had spread to the South leaving the area South of Semarang River as well as the area along Mataram Street to urban kampongs Hence the urban center was still a limited area it hadn t surpassed the urban center of the previous period In the area South of the city there was a small village called Jomblang that was still separated from Semarang At present Jomblang is already incorporated into Semarang The city was enlarged with new streets that were followed by dwelling areas fig 8 Until 1900 the urban area of Semarang was only at the kota lama where the buildings jostled against each other The city limit was within the radius of 2 km from the city center The streets outside the city center were shadowy for there were many trees planted along them On the international level there appeared a chance to improve the economic condition when the Suez Canal was opened in 1869 this accelerated trading between Europe and Asia Due to this new situation the Colonial government in 1870 changed its policy by abolishing the Cultuur Stelsel and allowing private enterprise to invest their capital in agribusiness The new policy concerning the 8 The map of 1892 Kaart van de Hoofdplaats Semarang en Omstreken unknown publisher Page 8 plantations surely effected a large improvement with regard to the economics of the city Many new offices were built and new industries originated The city center became a new field of various forms of employment The houses in the city center now changed making way for what were by the standards of the time huge offices Many new artery streets were opened such as Karre weg in 1904 in the East Pieter Sythoff Laan in 1901 in the South connecting the southwest end of Bojong street and Karangturi street fig 7 1 LIEM 1933 184 The opening of Pieter Sythoff Laan in my opinion was the most important planning measure contributing to the present form of Semarang As a consequence new settlers from the villages flooded the city that now grew rapidly FLIERINGA 1930 163 BOGAERS in NAS 1986 74 This city growth and the urban problems connected with it made it apparent that the old governmental system that was centralized with Batavia as the center was no longer able to maintain the city in reasonably good order The centralized system was unwieldy and incapable of solving the problems of housing infrastructure etc and failed to provide adequate forms of management In response to this problem in 1903 the Dutch government announced the introduction of a decentralized system In this new system the municipality was allowed to manage its own administration civic authority and finances through a city council that was autonomous and thus liberated from the tight control of the central government in Batavia BOGAERS in NAS 1986 74 In 1906 the decentralized administrative system was introduced in Semarang and only the natives were to remain under the central government in Batavia Inlandsch bestuur or Inland government government for the Natives being represented by the native regent in Semarang The Dutch the Chinese and other foreign inhabitants now were residents placed under the autonomous authority of the city municipality 9 The economic development that took place in the urban area since the abolishment of the Cultuur Stelsel created an extremely densely populated area In the urban kampong surrounding the regent s palace and in Pecinan the density reached 1000 persons ha At the turn of the century because of many diseases such as cholera tuberculosis and so on the mortality rate of the population was higher than in any country in Europe Among the Chinese population in Semarang in 1911 the mortal rate reached 64 3 1000 persons TILEMA 1913 121 At the beginning of twentieth century there was a movement in favour of ethical politics implying that the Dutch who lived in Java should pay a gratitude to the indigenous Javanese who were poor In Semarang at that time there was a movement of Kampong verbetering town quarter improvement if not slum improvement where the environment of the kampong was improved by way of ordering that WCs and drainage were to be introduced and housing was to be improved Tilema published the details of this kampong verbetering in his book Van wohnen tot bewohnen Huis en Erf Tilema was a pharmacist He was influenced by a British program in India that aimed at healthy settlements From the middle section of Pieter Sijthoflaan the city government constructed a new road connecting it to Duwet Street This new road at present is called Gajah Mada Street New settlements emerged along the road to Batavia and to Gubug The railway to Demak had not been built meanwhile the railway to Tanggung was lengthened to Surakarta passing several small towns such as Gundih and Kedung Jati I conclude that the city center suffered stagnation wheareas the periphery was developed through the construction of new roads Morphologically new primary elements which became strategic places determined the city form This development was the beginning of spatial fragmentation of Semarang a fragmentation that is continued until today As explained above the construction of Pieter Sijthoflaan created the golden triangle of the present Semarang city 9 The Inlandsch Bestuur governed the natives through the regent Bupati the district chief the assistance district chief and the ward On the other hand the city municipality consistes of a mayor Burgermeester mayor s board College van Burgermeester aldermen Wethouderas and Gemeenteraad local council DJAWATAN Penerangan Kota Besar Semarang 1953 35 Page 9 Semarang grew dynamically towards the south along Karreweg and Mataram street with villas and urban kampongs fig 9 In view of the construction of a railway line to the West and Southeast I think that trade coming from this direction was more important than that from any other direction A year later in 1910 the railway line to Demak was constructed along the Groote Postweg to Surabaya it occasioned urban development along this railway line fig 10 10 The main street and the railway line to Batavia had been used to connect Semarang to other cities in Central and West Java Though the center of movement was still in the Dutch quarter as the center of the city the new street Pieter Sijthoflaan potentially changed this dominance as we see today All development at that time was in answer to the needs of the Dutch business in the city Hence in order to protect their interests on the island the urban development in Semarang was also an outflow of the military development plan of the Dutch The city planning of Semarang in the colonial era was full of ideas rooted in military development patterns fig 11 D The strategy of Development When finally in office the new municipal authorities established after decentralization saw the dense area that included Pecinan as unhealthy and many inhabitants were allowed to move out of Pecinan The council wanted to increase the environmental and social quality of the city and to build a new healthy housing area separated from the city as a working place Since any northward development was facing an unhealthy swamp as an alternative solution the municipality agreed to develop the city towards the hilly area in the South However on this area there were Chinese graveyards that had already been there for centuries Hence the Chinese of course opposed this idea After some negotiations the Chinese were willing to move their ancestor s graves eastward The new area was named Niew Tjandi Candi Baru for there exited already an Oude Tjandi Candi Lama or Old Candi LIEM 1933 190 The main road to the envisioned town extension of Niew Tjandi is from Kalisari to the South through a new road called Nieuw Tjandi and built in 1914 However the lack of nearby inhabited centers with shopping facilities and quick transport were the main obstacle to urban development As a strategy to develop the city toward the south the municipality held an international exhibition from 20 August to 22 November 1914 which was called Koloniale Tentoonstelling colonial exhibition at the boulevard This exhibition got support from private entrepreneurs who were willing to invest in property speculation Oei Tiong Ham a Chinese entrepreneur leased part of his land which was located in the area between the tentoonstelling and the town to the exhibition board for just nothing Hence a road connecting the tentoonstelling and the town could be built This road is Gajah Mada street as mentioned above Thus this exhibition became a magnet of spatial development between the city and the rural area to the South filling a vacant stretch of land that had been previously neglected by economic activities increasing its land value The area of the tentoonstelling or exhibition that comprised 26 ha was divided into six sections They were relating to the colonial government agriculture plantation native industry foreign industry commerce and traffic respectively Each of these sections of course was again subdivided into areas reserved for large groups each group consisting of different companies The exhibition was intended to promoting machinery products indigenous industrial handicraft including a place for a blacksmith and a vast area of demonstrative plantation and agricultural activities It was like a science park realized at the beginning of the 20th century into which steel construction electricity and modern transportation had been integrated It was and is the largest international Exhibition Park ever realized in 10 The map of 1910 Topograpische Inrichting Batavia 1910 Page 10 Indonesia and in every respect looked like any universal exhibition on a comparable scale that was or might have been realized in Europe The plan to open the exhibition was predicted to be successful and profitable New hotels and car rentals had been opened a year before the opening days Suddenly at the end of July 1914 the First World War began in Europe an occurence that unleashed an economic crisis in the whole world The project which had been prepared since 1912 got stuck in terrible problems Many investors who expected to reap a profit from this venture suffered a great lost During the event itself the number of visitors was declining day by day from 23 000 visitors on the first day to 3 500 visitors on the 22 October Hence in order to lure more visitors to the exhibition the entrance fee was cut by half However this measure did not lead to an increase in the number of visitors Soon after the exhibition was ended all buildings were dismantled without leaving a trace No one visiting the site could tell any more that a large exhibition had been held in this area Not even any single footpath can still be traced today In contrast to the practice in many a European city where an exhibition building becomes permanent and identifies the place as a landmark the Koloniale Tentoonstelling was gone as if it was a mirrage or minor occurence at the periphery of history a temporary event that has been forgotten by the city dwellers The boulevard Pieter Sytthof Laan where this exhibition took place is now a crowded street with offices and hotels The middle ground of the exhibition has been converted to housing and schools The train lines and tram lines of the exhibition period were buried The place for demonstrative sugar and rice fields has been used for governmental buildings However the setting of the Koloniale Tentoonstelling is still sound and valid as a portrait of the present urban condition where actually the periphery as a border is vague as vague as the urban center itself It means that Semarang s urban form has been growing intolerably sprawling everywhere creating fragments of new centers and letting the old one decline It means that the exhibition was a true magnet of urban development in the southern periphery of the city The tentonstelling is a true demonstration of political thinking on urban development we could learn from it for our era E The Ideal Plan After the Koloniale Tentoonstelling was closed in 1914 there was a strong tendency of development to the South The land value was increasing as there was already an infrastructure that had been built in this area Hence the municipality started to plan a housing area at this side Nevertheless they could not make a final decision until Thomas Karsten the advisor for city planning in 1916 gave an approved proposal and it was implemented by the municipality in 1917 FLIERINGA 1930 165 In his concept Thomas Karsten said that the concept of socio economic class is more important in dividing the new settlement in Candi Baru The old concept of racial separation that divided an urban zone into Dutch Chinese and indigenous Javanese settlements was left behind as a substitute the settlement area is now divided into plots the size of the houses that are to be marketed and it is the site of the plot that finally affects the price In Candi Baru Karsten envisioned the largest houses along the main street The smaller houses were located behind the main street The smallest houses for the lowest income group were built along the narrow alleys inside the terrain or interior of the block As the plan for the housing area was based on economic classes instead of ethnic segregation BOGAERS in NAS 1986 79 in practice the three ethnic groups were also divided into three economics classes Obviously the Dutch and a few rich Chinese were seen as future occupants of the highest category of housing destined for the economically most potent therefore highest social class The bulk of the Chinese were to be the majority in the middle class category of houses and sites and the majority of the natives were in the lowest category destined for the lowest socio economic class Consequently the rich who could pay more live in higher places with a better views larger plots and better Page 11 houses than the lower income people 11 Rich Dutch and Chinese persons bought almost all houses in this new housing area 12 They lived in Niew Tjandi but worked downtown The layout of streets and roads in Nieuw Tjandi was adapted to the topological contour The housing area is composed of main streets secondary streets and steepers Squares created an attractive view everywhere The luxurious houses on large plots were along the main road with a good view of the town and the sea On the terrain behind the villas there was lower cost housing on smaller plots Some of the houses were lower than the street level and they were reached through steepers fig 7 2 In 1922 the municipality had developed the area from Semarang river to the south up into the hilly area 13 Oei Tiong Ham the Chinese entrepreneur who had the right to manage plantations opened up a road from the middle of Pieter Sijthoflaan to the hilly area this road was called Oei Tiong Ham Weg Places like Candi Baru Erlangga Seroja and Karang Wulan had been developed using a grid pattern fig 11 The grid pattern of streets was not new for Semarang as the Old Dutch quarter and the Chinese settlement were also built on grid pattern The harbor of Semarang was enlarged to the East wiping out the fish pond s The railway line had already been lengthened to Batavia The Semarang river that beforehand was a primary element now was used as a city drainage The city grew in view of its economic upswing All roads were built on account of economic reasons what counted was the revenue and the profit Semarang so far had been enlarged to a size twice as large as it had assumed in its previous form The city limit was removed to the South now including the new housing area at Candi Baru Apart from the primary element of the river that had been changed into secondary element there emerged new primary elements constituting the new urban form It was an urban form that had been fragmented into several quarters On the map of 1922 I think there is an indication of a new plan to unite the fragmented spaces into a compact city ranging from the low land to the hilly area The state of the city in 1922 is the embryo of a metropolis where multi ethnic groups lived and traded in the city What was planned was a coherence of a metropolis incorporating smaller towns such as Jomblang Bulu Kabluk and Jatingaleh in the hilly area Within the next fifteen years many parts of what was planned had not yet been realized Up to this year only some housing at Candi Baru located in the hilly area was built In 1937 the military whose headquarter was in Semarang planned an air strip for military defense 14 This air strip was located to the West of the city surrounded by the villages of Kalibanteng Lor Krapyak and Kali Banteng Kidul As a result of the city enlargement there emerged new city centers at the periphery fig 12 However the space between the old center and new centers had not been developed very well It was then that the dichotomy between urban and village areas appeared fig 15 11 This housing program called Volkhuisvestingdienst was very famous in the history of city planning in Indonesia However until the 1930 s the city council still built different houses for different ethnic groups the Dutch the Chinese and the natives The Dutch and the Chinese typically lived in a bigger house and the natives in a smaller house see FLIERINGA 1930 184 185 12 From our observation the Chinese who liked to live in this healthy and lavishly constructed but expensive area were only those who were peranakan and they educated their children in Western culture At the time there was already a Holland Chinesische School built in 1909 LIEM 1933 194 13 The map of 1922 NV Technisch reproductiebureau en lichtdrukkerij Holland Indie 14 The map of 1937 Topograpische dienst 1937 Page 12 Since 1919 there had been two other expansion plans both for East Semarang BOGAERS in NAS 1986 82 In 1923 the government extended this housing area in East Semarang that was then occupied by middle class Chinese because the need for housing increased very sharply LIEM 1933 261 In this area which was on a flat ground the layout was a grid with large plots along the main street Karreweg The low cost housing areas which were divided into main and secondary streets and arranged with squares and boulevard lay behind this main street These houses were double and single houses The area studded with them was built up from Halmahera way up to the North The larger houses at Sompok were almost completely taken over by the Chinese This development of course reduced the density in Pecinan fig 7 3 In 1929 when the need for inexpensive houses increased the municipality opened up a new low cost housing area in Mlaten The Chinese who moved there immediately opened shops fig 7 4 FLIERINGA 1930 145 The area of less expensive houses was divided into several classes ranging from 17 to 74 m of covered surface with plots ranging from 80 100 to 275 400 m FLIERINGA 1930 184 This housing program was continued until just before the Second World War The opening up of Niew Tjandi as a settlement area was followed by the opening up of the surrounding area for urban kampongs like Ngaglik Kintelan and Lempongsari F The Flood and the Canal For a long time the city of Semarang regularly suffered from floods during the rainy season The Semarang River was the primary element where a way of daily life dependent on transport by boat was anchored and it always brought the floods into the city center In order to control the floods the Dutch built a canal called Banjir canal Barat The canal is branching off from the upper course of the Semarang river that soon could not be sailed any more and lost its function as a primary element of the city Right after its construction Banjir kanal Barat became the city limit in the West Along the canal there are still rice fields The decreasing volume of water in the Semarang River did not affect the function of the harbor along Kali Baru as a harbour or haven canal The harbour was enlarged at the coast line and a railway station was built connecting the harbour and the interior of the island Due to the lack of drainage in 1936 the Semarang municipality obtained financial support from the Netherlands there are however no records pertaining to the sum made available but it was part of the f 25 million in total support for the whole colony I B T Locale Techniek 1936 117 119 With this financial support the municipality wanted to continue the city drainage program that had been halted because of financial difficulties So far the drainage did not work especially in the rainy season when the canals overflowed bringing about an outbreak of disease in the aftermath The two city canals Banjirkanal East and West could not overcome this problem They only reduced the inflow of water from the Garang River in the Southwest and from smaller rivers in the Southeast On the other hand the run off from the hilly area overflowed the lower part of the city and could not be drained well Therefore the government planned to build smaller canals at the foot of the hill They were the Siranda canal connecting the two Banjirkanals and the Kampungkali canal which was to lead from just South of Chinatown to the East and then would turn North where it was called Banger River at the time The predicted cost of building these canals was f 170 000 I B T Locale Techniek 1936 119 A year later the canal in Siranda was built and it cost f 260 000 I B T Locale Techniek 1937 73 Half the cost was shouldered by the central government in Batavia the old name of Jakarta The canal resulting from his expensive project like other canals built in the colonial era is at present in disrepair and does not work well because people threw refuse from their households into it There are no records relating to the cost of Kampung Kali canal Page 13 After the construction of the two canals the canals in Semarang could be divided into four sections In the western part of the city running from North to South there was the Banjirkanal West In the middle section running from North to South there was the Semarang River In the East there were the Banger River and the Banjirkanal East running from South to North Meanwhile in East Westerly direction there were the Siranada canal and Kampungkali canal Between these main canals there ran smaller canals as connecting elements G The implementation of the plan When the Japanese invaded the island and assumed control of Semarang in 1942 the governmental system based on different ethnic groups was abolished Instead the Japanese military government directly controlled all ethnic groups in the city and the native regent who was confirmed in this position by the Japanese supervised the area outside the city DJAWATAN Penerangan Kota Besar Semarang 1953 35 The only map drawn during the Japanese occupation was a map presented again by the Allied Forces in 1946 This map was a reproduction of a map already published in 1943 fig 14 15 Before the fall of the Netherland Indie government and the transfer of authority into the hands of the Japanese a new housing area at Karang Wulan had been realized completely with a sports center area The East side of Semarang had also seen a new development the production of a housing estate The area both left and right of Pieter Sijthoflaan was still empty A plan had been set up with respect to this area but it was realised only after independence day From Oei Tiong Ham weg to Siranda there were many houses occupying the plots on both sides of the street The houses were large like villas They belonged to rich Dutch and Chinese inhabitants The villages in the suburban area such as Jomblang that was annexed to Semarang gradually became a densely populated area with a bigger market Jomblang Bulu Jatingaleh and Genuk became the satelites of Semarang It was the beginning of a gigantic city Almost all city planning in the map had been implemented though with several changes such as the square Simpang Lima In 1943 Semarang had already become the capital of Central Java Province hence the shadow of a large metropolis appeared from its development inclination In such a city the transition from empty land to housing area was very common This transition was actually a revolution seen from the spatial point of view implying a sudden change in the urban design Primary elements were becoming secondary in the satelite towns This became the dynamo of urban growth in the outlying areas At the same time in the city center land use transformation went on organically from empty land to urban kampongs that were unpleasant The city limit however was the Banjir Kanal Timur and Banjir Kanal Barat The relevant phenomena we observe show the rise of an urban morphology that tended towards the domination of streets as primary elements surrounded by an empty area Along these streets new dwellings or shop houses were built the areas opened up being the only other alternative to live in Semarang proper apart from the old urban center Such streets became the dynamo of urban kampongs filling the area behind the

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