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  • Hrdlicka, Sculptor, Citizen - -------------------------------------------------------------------------
    could attack them in a sarcastic and revealing way as Koeppen the author of Pigeons on the Grass and Death in Rome did 7 You could call to attention of the public how the danger of a new fascism was not over for good as Alfred Andersch did when the Social Democrats and Free Democrats finally in power in the 70s decreed the Berufsverbote ban to be employed in the public service if you were considered a leftist a decree that even made a red mailman jobless For the progressive writer if he did not move or was said to be too far to the left as Brecht was the avenues presented to him by the liberal publishing houses like Fischer and Suhrkamp offered a certain possibility to swim against the current even before 68 In the film industry everything progressive remained exceptional until the young film makers of the New German Cinema found ways of financing their works outside the industry Becoming in a way self reliant and inventive in their methods of finding co producers Public television to some became an important source of financing when in the still young era of Social Democratic chancellors major positions within the institution began to be staffed by members of the younger more open minded liberal generation But conservative strong holds continued to exist especially in the Federal Bureau that decided whether to award subsidies to young and daring filmmakers who applied for them The decision to support a production was taken not on the basis of assessing the innovative character of the visual approach of a creative filmmaker but by judging the film script he had to hand in Such a decision was often taken on the basis of narrow minded academic standards engrained in the brains of mediocre cultural bureaucrats As far as the problem of reaching the public was concerned it was helpful that film critics like Wolfram Schuette Frieda Grafe Enno Patalas Peter W Jansen Karsten Witte and a few others would write on the New Cinema For instance in the left liberal Frankfurter Rundschau and in the liberal Sueddeutsche Zeitung University film clubs and Kunstfilmtheater a term meaning literally art film theaters provided a much needed venue as did the filmshows and film festivals in cities run by liberal Social Democrats especially in Mannheim Oberhausen and in Hamburg But public sculptures anti fascist art in the public sphere paid for by the public by city administrations out of their budget for cultural affairs It remained an unlikely proposal in West Germany even in the 1970s 3 Before the mid 1960s Alfred Hrdlicka s visibility as a creator of public sculptures was evolving slowly under the circumstances of the time just sketched Then suddenly in 1964 he was one of two Austrian artist invited to the 32nd Biennale in Venice And three years later in 1967 he was commissioned by the city council of Vienna which was dominated by Social Democrats to produce a bust of Karl Renner the deceased Austrian president d 1950 a Social Democrat In spite of the strongly entrenched Conservatives who were in power in the South west German state of Baden Wuerttemberg Hrdlicka was invited to teach as a professor at the Stuttgart Academy of Fine Arts in 1971 Like Beuys in Duesseldort he had to face a number of colleagues who did not make life exactly easy for him or his students Though he was at least faintly recognizable as a red and an anti fascist artist a chance to create a public sculpture in West Germany was offered to Hrdlicka in the late 1970s in Marl a small town at the edge of the Ruhr District today known for its sculpture mueum and for other noteworthy cultural activities that are not normally expected in a town of this size and relatively minor economic importance The town was traditionally dominated by the coal industry And in 1938 the year of the pogrom against Jewish citizens the Nazi regime had established a Buna plant that produced synthetic rubber in the context of preparation for war and subsequently employed slave labor so called conscript workers or Zwangsarbeiter After World War II the mines had been modernized quickly and remained a major employer until the coal industry was destroyed by the competition from corporations importing cheap coal often mined by underpaid labor under unsafe and technically backward conditions abroad But the chemical industry remains important in Marl Among the culturally progressive circles we must count the women and men working at the People s University Volkshochschule as well as a number of trade unionists It was here that Hrdlicka realized a bust of pastor Friedrich Bonhoeffer a German conservative anti fascist murdered by the Nazis in Ploetzensee Berlin on April 9 1945 shortly before the end of the war Portrait of Dietrich Bonhoeffer in Marl Germany 1977 Photo by Gerardus 2008 Re published with permission The head has the simplicity of a Buddhist sculpture its expression is at once calm strange detached and defiant There is an energy that is discovered in or attributed by Hrdlicka to this man It is there thanks to the way he invented and formed the head the bust And as we turn to it actively thinking about it sharpening our senses it becomes visible and thus known to us The roughly hewn stone as well as the fragmentary character of the bust ascertain the modernity of the work A specific modernity after Auschwitz that is to say the modernity of an age which allows no reconciliation no easy harmony no forms that do not express pain Portrait of Dietrich Bonhoeffer in Marl Germany 1977 Photo by Gerardus 2008 Re published with permission The thoughtfulness of the face especially as seen from this angle is striking Is it to provoke thoughtfulness in us Set in a nature like hardly garden like ambiente less tamed than a romantic English gardenscape or French geometrically strict Baroque garden the fragmentary quality of the stone stands out even more harshly Like the ruins of cities bombed to pieces in the war But there is also a nuance that lets me think it is almost like the remnants of an ancient temple set into the jungle and prepared to be swallowed by it Thus nature becomes a metaphor for that which reconciles a metaphor of that which eats and in fact devours and thus overcomes the barbarous past of class societies that are built on blood and sweat and tears The blood spilled by henchmen tools of barbaric rulers The sweat of the common people who let exploitation and tyranny happen The tears of all those guilty or not who suffer It was in 1981 that Alfred Hrdlicka could create his Frederick Engels Monument Friedrich Engels Monument in the birthplace of Engels Wuppertal an industrial city in the immediate neighborhood of the Ruhr District governed by a Social Democratic mayor It was here that the city administration had also created a place of remembrance and research in the house where Engels had been born This fitted their purpose to keep documents of Marx and Engels under indirect Social Democratic control as in the case of the Karl Marx house in Trier where the social democratic Friedrich Ebert Foundation is in charge Obviously guarding and occupying a certain heritage of the party was a purpose it went hand in hand with minor economic considerations It is always considered a small boost to tourism that a town can boast to be the native place of one of its sons who has become famous internationally Not only academic researchers from within Germany and from abroad are welcome visitors but the average curious tourist as well Hrdlicka for whom the authors of the Communist Manifesto must have had quite a different significance than that attributable in all likelihood to politicians culture managers and other bureaucrats in Wuppertal apparently was ready to find his own answer to the quest for a sculpture in memory of Engels The Friedrich Engels Monument in Wuppertal Germany Segment of a photo by Atamari 2009 The reference to Engels is not immediately certainly not automatically recognized Two human figures erupt or protrude from the stone Castor and Pollux A metaphoric representation of Engels and Marx Yes maybe for some the work alludes also to the two friends and co workers sharing a joint project although they are certainly not recognizable in any naturalistic sense But then it alludes to MAN perhap man and woman thrown into the human condition of PREHISTORY where MAN is still subject to exploitation to needless forms of suffering to what is irrational and alienating Does it then refer to the project the preoccupation of Engels to his perception of MAN as the beaten suffering creature in need of emancipation Twisted tangled limbs the bared ribs a chest seen as if partly opened the entire distorted fragmentary presence of the human body does not all of it testify to the pain inscribed in human existence as long as class societies are changing their character without overcoming the division into ruling and ruled exploiting and exploited classes And yet there is also togetherness The beauty that shines through in even the dark moments in life And the joy of being alive Puzzled wondering the figure to the right stares at something The ground Its own body Nothing because the INNER eye SEES and turns INWARD And the figure to the left Throwing back its head in pain Or staring enraptured at the sun Into the blue sky O yes I asked myself what the hands are holding is the man holding a baby And the woman a scroll About four years later Hrdlicka was awarded the opportunity to realize the Counter Memorial Gegendenkmal in Hamburg begun by him in 1985 and completed in 1986 Counter Memorial Gegendenkmal in downtown Hamburg Germany Photo by Staro Republished with permission The fragmentary character of the work as well as the violence incribed into the aesthetic language found by the sculptor are perplexing in fact deeply disturbing This is the antithesis of any usual language suggested by other conventional sculptors who have so often been asked to create monuments in memory of those who died in the last war Or in the other big terrible World War The monument is located downtown set into a small park Before the jarring outline and coarse surface of the main body of the work which appears like a tableau of a world tormented and about to be torn asunder by chaotic violent forces a dark human figure is faintly visible leaning against it as if in agony the agony of dying In front of it separated by the grass of the lawn the fragmentary headless body of a woman her left breast bared her left leg distorted though not disfigured erupts from the stone Springing from it merging with it Burned into or onto ruins Where we would expect the throat to sit on the rump something seems to flow from this body the lungs Perhaps it is the visualized pain which flees it and yet is glued to it like a dead fish a flounder or flatfish Something like a steel rod a beam a long geometric corpus made of who knows iron bronze steel connecting the female torso and the main body of the monument hits the human figure exactly where we feel the presence of its absent torn off smashed annihilated head Other rods or beams stick out from the monument protruding nearly vertically into the air Or they are visible as relief like almost horizontal beams in front of it Do we think of smashed shattered houses bombed habitats crumbling and about to fall down Further to the left also separate from the main body of the work a strange almost surrealist stonen form rests on a high pedestal Its form and the dynamics inscribed into it let me think of flames flaring up But it evokes also a giant wing of a bird a cruel bird of prey not a real one of course but the mythical eagle that tore the flesh away from the heart of Prometheus That which is figurative and thus recognizable though deformed a bit like Picasso deformed his human figures and that which remains a riddle form a single but dispersed work accentuating the question posed a question which demands from us to take a stand Every passer by will tell his story of course as he turns to the counter monument I can only tell mine Only two years after Hrdlicka had completed his Counter Monument in Hamburg his own city Vienna the Austrian capital where Hrdlicka lived and worked asked him to create the Memorial against War and Fascism Mahnmal gegen Krieg und Faschismus on the Albertina Square realized in 1988 1991 Gate of Violence Tor der Gewalt part of the Monument against War and Fascism Vienna photo by Hans Weingartz Here the location of the work is not a small park but an urban square amidst pre 19th and pre 18th century houses that either survived the war unharmed or that were reconstructed The shape and color of the two elements of the monument that are known as the Gate to Violence shown above bear witness to the fact that Hrdlicka in fact respects the character of the architectural environment He respects it in so far as the finely grained and not at all non harmonic texture of the high pedestals almost takes up and repeats the color of the cobble stones The sloping surface of the pedestals takes up the angles of the roofs of the surrounding houses The whiteness of the sculptured figures takes up the white color of the walls of the buildings And the almost cozy well nigh romantic atmophere of the built environment seems to be as if echoed by playfully baroque shapes But the playful movement seemingly inscribed into the forms the lines the volumes of the sculpture are the outcome of terrible and terribly painful distortions The human body is deformed ripped apart it even stands on its head As in the case of the female figure in the Hamburgian Counter Monument the human figure grows out of the stone Breasts and arms appear from it quite on the top of the sculpture I see bones which must belong to a leg that no longer exists in its entirety Snakelike other elements of the human body are emerging from the white stone some almost winding themselves around part of it What seems at first sight an ensemble of playfully entangled limbs turns out to be the outcome of the most negative life annihilating destruction Another view of Hrdlicka s Monument against War and Fascism photo by Gryffindor 2006 As in Hamburg but now even more radically perhaps Hrdlicka turned the monument into an ensemble of separated parts that you can enter that as a pedestrian you can cross And probably are supposed to cross to walk through that is In other words you become for seconds or minutes not an onlooker glancing at it from outside it but a part of it drawn into it Involved Asked to see and touch to sense and relate corporeally to confront to reflect to feel think and act Another view of Hrdlicka and his work The starkly disturbing Memorial Against War and Fascism has been occasionally defaced since it was unveiled in 1991 Known to have been deeply influenced by his studies of the mentally ill during the late 1960s Hrdlicka turned to a figurative expressive style meant to provoke his audience to confront the world s anguish pain and misery For him art was agitprop and he understood his life as an artist as a mission to educate the public to oppose war and violence His oft cited dictum all art comes from flesh is reflected in his later works For Hrdlicka art that avoided the human condition was nothing more than decoration and not to be taken seriously From George Jahn AP Austrian news agency Artist Hrdlicka dead in http www google com hostednews ap article ALeqM5ioaTtRzqgXIGkmQtYEzon9FsCGiQD9CDEEG00 External link See Junge Welt article on A Hrdlicka by Oskar Lafontaine backup copy Right below the Gate to Violence of the Viennese Monument against War and Fascism another monument done by Hrdlicka attracts the marvelling attention of the person who opens his eyes actively and watchfully looking at the world around him It is the figure of an old bearded man cowering crawling on the ground one hand the right one slightly raised in the air As if asking you to be understood To be taken out of and freed by you from his humiliatory situation To be saved from his anxiety his torment and his tormenters The main accent of the sculpture is on the thrust forward the imploring gesture the desperate face that turns to you serious earnest facing the enormous Confronting it as if in prophetic clarity it sees perceives the scandalous absence of humanity that it is subjected to Seen from the front the body the back behind legs feet seem to shrink perspectively giving an even greater impulse to the thrust forward the accent put on arms hands and above all the face the earnest trait of which heralds already the turn of history the nemesis the defeat that will destroy the destroyers of human dignity human values and millions of human lives Statue of a Kneeling Jew Photo by KF Re published with permission The photograph reproduced was accompanied by a short commentary of the photographer K F He presumably a citizen of Vienna tells us that in 1938 shortly after the annexation of Austria Jewish Viennese men were forced by the Nazis to scrub the pavement with brushes He explains that this was perpertrated in order to humiliate and terrorize the Jewish citizens of Vienna He also mentions that this work unveiled in 1991

    Original URL path: http://www.art-in-society.de/AS10/AH/Hrdlicka-1A.html (2016-04-25)
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  • (Re-)Discovering Zadkine - ----------------------------------------------------------------
    Prometheus There too the felt presence of movement was important to the artist In The City Laid Waste the body of the woman that appears to us when we see the sculpture is about to turn around and flee The extremely slanted position of the sculpture suggest destabilization precarity the threat felt the imminent fall Here in the garden amid trees positioned in nature in a grove so to speak Orpheus is playing his lyre To play means to move At least it mean to move the hands the fingers But perhaps that does echo in the upper part of the body as well Whereas the feet of the player need to be standing solidly on the ground The head stands out in a clear precise way The singer has opened his mouth accompanying the tune of the lyre with his song The eyes are they shut or almost so Concentrated or rather immersed in his playing and singing he doesn t let his eyes wander Or stare at something The positions of the arms reflect the need to hold the lyre properly while playing There is nothing gratuitious in them The left arm is raised it forms an angle of about 90 degrees The right arm is in a slightly curved and a lower position The tension between the positions of both arms is clearly determined by the playing and in a way the hands and the mouth form an invisible but intuitively sensed connecting line It reflects I would say the oneness of the act of playing and singing In spite of what I said about a necessity to be firmly anchored while playing I ask myself noticing the position of the feet whether Orpheus isn t slowly walking Moving on among the trees ever so lightly slightly while he sings and plays The legs support that assumption While Orpheus has turned the head toward us he seem to move sideways The legs incidentally are showing soft smooth lines and a slightly curved surface Their segmentation is visible but only as a somewhat hinted at mild fragmentation at least when the figure is perceived in the way of the first photograph The second one reveals in the case of the left leg the hiatus the jarring way of joining its parts at the knee a much clearer break with any even if only faintly naturalistic way of modeling the human body than we note in the case of the other the right leg Link to another image in www schwarzaufweiss de Great Orpheus Grosser Orpheus Photo by Gerardus taken in 2008 It is also in this second photograph that the ripped open chest becomes much more visible In the other photo that is to say from the location where it was taken we can only guess or surmise the opened chest and if we look carefully it seems to us perhaps that we are permitted to look inside the human body The movement of the line inscribed into the right leg is carried upward way above the hips and merges with and is continued by the curved plane that forms the figures back In fact looking from the front we are allowed to see the inside of Orpheus back It is as if we were looking into an elongated open bowl seeing its bottom And at the same time a clearly structured surface stands out in front of it Ribs Or a part of the musical instrument Whereas the first photo gives us a certainly deformed but nonetheless recognizable semblance of a male figure this semblance fades in the second photo at least from the waist upward if we exempt the bent arm Isn t this strange A way of making our perception feel or appear strange to us A way of making the object of our perception strange Yes certainly Though it has perhaps very little to do with Brechtian Verfremdung making strange For Brecht the insight that sprang from hearing something in a way that placed the ordinarily well known as we mistakenly thought in a new light was what mattered above all And Zadkine Does he aim at emotions rather than thought Or perhaps both We don t hear words don t watch a play we see a visual three dimensional work of art What does it tell us That the singer Orpheus isn t whole and harmonious anymore because he has seen the horrors of a century We may have to ask ourselves this question Picasso s fragmented torn dissected re combined human forms present in two dimensional works already echoed the disaster of the approaching and then the suffered war of 1914 18 Europe had become a place of skulls of murderous confrontation After 1945 a new more barbaric experience had been added and Zadkine has chosen has been compelled to become a concious witness of it Great Orpheus Grosser Orpheus photo by Daniel Ulrich taken in 2005 In the same year that Great Orpheus was cast in bronze Zadkine did a sculpture entitled Hommage à van Gogh It can be seen in the Parc Van Gogh in Auvers sur Oise In contrast to Great Orpheus which really is closer to the spirit of 1948 the sculpture dedicated to the menory of van Gogh strikes many of us as almost conventional perhaps The organic is very prevalent in the bark like surface structure But the tension that goes with it in L arbre de vie another work showing a texture that reminds me of the bark of a tree is missing here Or at least I fail to notice it What I notice is the expressive face the face of a man facing resistance Confronting the world the Others with great seriousness courage skepticism probably in the way of someone thrown back onto himself And isn t the upper part of the body as well as the face reclining backwards ever so slightly A small but revealing nuance His tools the tools of

    Original URL path: http://www.art-in-society.de/AS10/Z/Zadkine1.html (2016-04-25)
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  • Kopie-poems
    of it looking at it I see the entire block the smooth sides of it the slightly curved baseline in front of me I see the drawings of time the patterns formed in the material the darkness inside the trench and the light on its edges its walls How lively how differentiated they appear to me now Blacks and light and dark greys of a grey block of slate worked on to let us marvel and discover and be surprised For a moment in the center of the plane the grey framed surface in front of me I have seen a person bowing his bowing her head The arms and elbows raised higher then the head The chest bowing forward A tortured person perhaps A person tied to a pole or a wall The head sagging The body sagging But it could have been somebody cowering in pain Or in meekness as well Or a bird A clumsy bird picking in the sand The feathers a cushion protecting against the wind Anne Marie Klenes Schiste d Herbeumont 32 5 x 21 x 8 cm Der Raetselblock Enigmatische Spuren Zufallsspuren produziert im Material Schiefer in zehntausend Jahren Eine Vertiefung eine Hoehlung ein Loch ist gemeisselt ist tief hineingegraben in den Steinblock Sie ist ein Rechteck fast Seine regelmaessige Kontur folgt vage der Idee dem Konzept eines Rechtecks Wie ein Schuetzengraben in einer Landschaft gesehn von oben erscheint s mir Und in diesem Graben steht ein Block hervor ein wenig unregelmaessig auch er Und auf der Oberflaeche des Blocks Spuren Spuren hinterlassen von der Geschichte der Erde von Zehntausenden von Millionen Jahren Ihr Gemaelde ihre Zeichnung ihre reliefartige Skulptur vor Augen gefuehrt von Anne Maries Skulptur Weil sie es offen legte Weil sie dem einen Rahmen gab einen Rahmen der ein Graben

    Original URL path: http://www.art-in-society.de/AS10/AMK/Block-of-r.html (2016-04-25)
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  • Kopie-poems
    von den Wolken Oder von Lichtstrahlen Ein Bogen um Pfeile abzuschiessen auf ein Herz so lang schon fort Es winkt von einem andren Stern Ich hab das entdeckt diesen seltsamen Vogel der fliegt nah am Weiss Ich hab entdeckt diese Harfe die still zu mir spricht dort ueber m Weiss einer Wand The Harp It is played by silence It is played by the light and its shadow It is

    Original URL path: http://www.art-in-society.de/AS10/JGM/Birdharp.html (2016-04-25)
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  • Sculptures by Vincent Halflants --------------------------------------------------------------------
    clear to us when we confront the sculpture from another angle that a simplification a certain amount of abstraction has taken place Much attention has been paid by the artist to the support of this sculptured figure of a man a support which is itself an important element of the sculpture an element that appears as if composed of largely geometric segments that have been placed on top of and next to each other in a way that often jars that produces twists hard edges incongruencies of a sort that contradict every imaginable effort to produce a single smooth form The contrary is the case We perceive elements We see their edges outlines surfaces And still the support has a clarity of its own attributable exactly to its geometric planes its often straight lines a small sphere and a certain number of clear curves of minor wight perhaps but still of importance Despite the perceptual clarity of this support it is difficult to read it Why does the upper element rest in just this way on the lower one Why does the stabilizing element that seems to hold both the upper and lower part of the support in place rest on the small sphere and thus a most unstable foundation Why does the sculptured man need such a high support In order to see better to perceive more clearly to look into the distance rather than in myopic fashion at his feet or into no more than a book Or does such a support add to his importance Or rather to a sense of insecurity of being exposed to the winds of time To the looks of Others The material surface of the support like that of the sculptured figure shows the traces of work the traces of the time this work took in a way the traces of history The entire work is solid sturdy infinitely structured when looked at closely But seen from afar its clarity and stability are countered by an unmistakable sense of the inherently provisional inscribed into an existence that is exposed to hazards perhaps from without as much as from within And from within no less than from without It is remarkable and in fact telling that this sculpture was raised on a high pillar in fact a pre existent chimney made of brick so that it came to stand high above the roofs of houses confronting full of awake perhaps even challenging self assuredness the spire of a church I sense a loneliness but also a lot of strength a rebel mood a defiance both in the posture of this male figure and in the position in which it places itself or is placed by the artist Man in the 20th as in this beginning 21st century is still a lonely creature separated from others at best a rebel defiant resisting the powers that be including in Flanders the age old ideological prowess of the Church But he is also consciously or intuitively

    Original URL path: http://www.art-in-society.de/AS10/VH/VincentHalflants.html (2016-04-25)
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  • Jean Fabre in Venice - ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    to the waist of a man with something Gold Documents Layers of sand And on top of it they ve place a dead man If I were a viewer I d try to look for myself I d try to decipher the dream and give a name a place and a time to a reality the work points to I d sense the myth and in the myth the truth in the truth my inaction my failure to know and my guilt I d speak of the human body I see as if it were my brother s My brother s who came to meet me but didn t make it through the barbed wire the horrors of a bureaucracy 2 I see a room A room filled with sand Sand or a mountain of carpets one lying above the other The uppermost carpet is blue the blue of a magic sea The surface is not level it is curved suggestive of low incoming waves A white rim made of plaster a stucco frieze gives us an inkling of what might be the coast a quay A man is lying flat on the carpet sea He seems to drift on

    Original URL path: http://www.art-in-society.de/AS10/OnJeanFabre.html (2016-04-25)
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  • "concomitant" : Leen Lybeer and Vincent Halflants in the H8x12 Space for Contemporary Art - ---------------------------------------------------------
    concomitant Leen Lybeer and Vincent Halflants exhibition at H8x12 Space for Contemporary Art April 17 May 2 2010

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  • Tendencies in the Sphere of Culture and the Question of Hegemony - --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Maria Remarque Anna Seghers and others were no longer looked up to by young novelists as writers one could learn from Still others like Erich Muehsam were almost completely forgotten U S models influenced the young Heinrich Boell and his generation In Italy the situation was similar 5 Of course before this politically motivated intervention in the field of culture in museums publishing houses newspapers radio and TV occurred in Western Europe Japan and first of all the U S socially committed art and literature had not been the only kind that existed Naturalist and realist artists had not been automatically socially engagé Painters like Picasso who had embraced diverse modern tendencies including abstract art had been very committed At the same time the kind of social realism propagated in Eastern Europe and soon also in the P R China had by and large been discredited If many socialist realist art works in the Warsaw pact countries and China appeared boring this was due to intellectually stifling Etatist intervention and to the subsequent mediocrity of state supervised art Of course Mao s question posed in 1942 was relevant An important task of progressive artists and writers was to determine FOR WHOM they wanted to and perhaps should create works of art FOR WHOM and thus IN WHOSE INTEREST The need to take sides could not be without consequence regarding the way one worked and how one would continue to intervene artistically But as Picasso had shown and as Breton and others were to show as well the responsibility lay with the artists and writers themselves not a government or a party And the search for relevant forms of expression was their task it could not be prescribed in any helpful and meaningful way by critics or bureaucrats In the end the Cold War situation has meant that open intervention in the arts and literature took place in the East And more subtly introduced less noticeable but no less effective forms of intervention by governments and cultural institutions took place in the West with results that continue to be felt until today Still a multiplicity of trends reaching from extreme l art pour l art positions to radical political agitation continued and still continue to exist of course in what the ideologues of the time once called the Free West But the strong position of progressive forms of expression in the arts and literature that existed in Japan and Germany until the late 1920s or early 30s that is until dictatorships at the service of the Capitalist social forces in these countries were put in place and that lasted in France Britain and the U S till about 1945 or 1950 was rapidly destroyed A cultural hegemony of subjectivism and concern for individualist problems for instance petit bourgeois marriage problems was established most clearly in the field of literature thanks to the bias of people placed as gate keepers in major publishing houses Simultaneously an aesthetically radical yet subjective usually a

    Original URL path: http://www.art-in-society.de/AS9/JeanLoewinson.html (2016-04-25)
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