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  • Afghanistan 1978-1992 -----
    could begin to understand the vital importance of women s liberation and equality of all human beings It is also necessary to ask whether an atheist platform was of necessity counterproductive It is very likely that both ideologically and due to their class background most mullahs were opposed to a socialist agenda It is difficult to say whether some could have been won over if the government had abstained from an anti religious policy Basically it should be clear that the position towards freedom of religion that Marxist as well as other leftist and so called Marxist parties opted for helps to alienate many among the subaltern classes and has no relevance in other respects that would justify it An anti clericalist secular stance that left wing governments will defend does not need to be accompanied by militant atheism Not surprisingly the considerable problems experienced by the new government that had to face opposition from landowners and mullahs as well as economic difficulties led to infighting in a very early stage Similar dynamics have been observed in the beleaguered French Republic in the wake of 1789 and in the Soviet Union where infighting and terror culminated in the 1930s when the rise of fascism in Central Europe could not be ignored and a reappearance of the spectre of war could be feared with full justification The purges must have undermined the cohesion of left milieus in the big cities notably Kabul It seems absurd that the tension between the Khalq and the Parcham faction of the party grew more intense and it also weakened the progressive camp that those belonging to Maoist Trotzkyite and other left tendencies were persecuted and often killed But it is also necessary to keep in mind the Societ Chinese split and the fact that China supported right wing and counterrevolutionary tendencies in a number of so called Third World countries when the Chinese leaders feared that the left wing national liberation movements of these countries were too close to or received too much help from the Soviet Union or Cuba In Portugal after 1975 in Angola and Mozambique the role of Maoist groups was hardly one of shoring up the revolution the opposite was true This may also have been the case in Afghanistan Geopolitically the country had a key position both from the point of view of the Soviet Union and from that of China It would have been much wiser if the new leadership had remained close to both countries like Ho Chi Minh in Vietnam or if it had opted for non alignment like India Egypt and before the American backed Soehartoe coup Indonesia The weak initial backing of the coup mostly by a segment of the urban intelligentsia and progressive officers economic difficulties and a policy that alienated a large traditional and conservative part of the subaltern classes almost of necessitydrove parts of the masses into the arms of the counter revolution that was unleashed both by reactionary internal social forces

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  • Humaniser la guerre? ------
    of industrial progress improvements that would be euphemistically described as a result of modernization today were topped in the second half of the 20th century when automatic weapons became the standard of the day The 1940s added the atom bomb later there was the hydrogen bomb too missiles serve now as carriers of these weapons and the ingenuity of engineers chemist biologist and other scientist bent on inventing new arms has added substitutes and replacements of nuclear weapons such as new aerosol bombs more effective weapons grade anthrax the neutron bomb sound weapons and if we may go by hear say laser weapons If as much energy had been spent on improving the situation of mankind a lot of the real and perceived reasons for conflict and antagonism among members of the human species might have faded away The levée en masse in other words vast armies of drafted citizens that became typical in the wake of the French Revolution and during the Napoleonic Wars and that replaced the much smaller armies of mercenaries pressed soldiers and conscripts of an earlier era drove up the figures of wounded and killed combattants since about the year 1800 The situation got even worse with the first industrialized wars that surfaced with the American civil war 1861 65 and the Franco Prussian War 1870 71 1 Shortly before the outbreak of the US civil war two wars shocked public opinion the war waged by France Britain and Turkey against Russia that culminated in the Battle of Balaclava in 1854 2 and the war that pitted French and Italian troops against the Austrians in 1859 This latter war resulted in a particularly devastating battle the Battle of Solferino that would ultimately lead to the founding of the Red Cross 3 The suffering that such battles caused among soldiers led to agitation and activities that sought to limit the effects of slaughter and impose rules on it It was a fight not against the crime of war as such but a reformist undertaking for it was always intended as a mere palliative Since Balaclava and Solferino wars have in no way been humanized the opposite is correct wars have turned from bad to worse and the suffering caused in the last two great world wars as well as the wars in Indochina Yugoslavia Iraq and Afghanistan have brought death maiming and destruction to soldiers and civilians in a way and to an extent that is difficult to imagine for those not affected and that the rest of humanity has often chosen to ignore It should make us wonder what future wars might bring upon us in terms of suffering and how we can avert that and put an end to war as an acceptable way of resolving antagonism between countries and of dealing with their underlying politico economic and power conflicts Jake Edmonds Go back to Art in Society 14 Contents 1 The American Civil War was the first war that saw troops rely on

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  • U.S. MILITARY SPENDING - -------------------------
    the Congress alongside the main defence budget but as it turned out the Afghanistan surge has led to Obama asking the Congress for a supplemental after all Meanwhile some major weapon programmes were cancelled in the main budget such as the F 22 stealth fighter with increased spending on some current priorities such as increased troop strength unmanned aerial vehicles UAVs cyberwarfare and other current priorities There were also increases in some traditional major weapon programmes such as the F 35 Joint Strike Fighter As a result of the budget and the congressional changes US military spending is now projected to reach 719 billion in 2010 Overall the budget involved some rebalancing of priorities but no major strategic shift The FY2011 budget was announced in February 2010 and shows yet another increase both in the budget and in projected outlays expected to rise to 739 billion in 2011 Despite the administration s urgency to begin reducing the budget deficit security related expenditure was excluded by Obama from a planned three year squeeze in discretionary expenditure How is it that US military spending already far exceeding that of any other country and at record real terms levels since World War II is continuing to increase in the face of a dire economic crisis and a president committed to a more multilateral foreign policy approach One factor remains the conflict in Afghanistan to which Obama is committed and where the US troop presence is increasing even as the conflict in Iraq winds down Another is that reducing the military budget can be like turning round the proverbial supertanker weapon programmes have long lead times and may be hard to cancel Members of the Congress may also be resistant to terminating programmes bringing jobs to their states some programmes such as the C

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  • Woreldwide arms-spending in 2013 - --------------------------------------
    Brazil 31 5 48 0 1 4 13 Australia 24 0 19 0 1 6 14 Turkey 19 1 13 0 2 3 15 UAEmirates 19 0 85 0 4 7 Source Suddeutsche Zeitung no 91 April 19 20 21 2014 p 7 In 2013 compared with 2012 the biggest increase in arms expenditures occurred in Northern Africa closely followed by sub Saharan Africa Next in line were S E Asia EASTERN EUROPE and East Asia as well as the Middle East A comparable weak increase was noted in Latin America as well as Central Asia and South Asia Due to the economic crisis cut backs occurred in North America Western and Central Europe and Oceania Australia and New Zealand Worldwide arms expenditures were shrinking slightly in 1988 1989 and 1990 They were sharply reduced in 1991 They were reduced steadily in 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 rose very slightly in 1997 and shrank slightly to the 1996 level in 1998 They rose again considerably since 1999 and this until 2009 a year with a particularly hefty increase which resulted in a level of arms spending higher than that of 1988 They levelled off in 2010 2012 and dropped slightly in 2013 but were still on a pre 1989 level This is an interpretation of figure 1 Weltweit and figure 2 Entwicklung in Suddeutsche Zeitung Tom Hardy Go to Art in Society 14 Contents MOVE THE MONEY OUT OF THE MILITARY Move the money out of the military Set aside for a moment whether the U S government has too much or too little money It s spending the money it has destructively Fifty seven percent of discretionary spending going into the military is too much Tell Congress and the president to move the money U S military spending across

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  • The Causes of War ----------------------
    which is And this not in order to arrive at a new stage of subjection to politico economic forces but in a realm of freedom where all men jointly would attempt to consciously deliberate on and realize new possibilities of a good human commonwealth Economist indebted to Marx have often pointed out the constraints that even the ruling class even capitalist are subjected to in the context of a capitalist mode of production They are not free they often argue to be different from a Mitt Romney who pronounces I love to fire people They must seeek to realize the maximum profit possible they must exploite labor maximally and they must accumulate they must go forward in other words and compete with competitors or go down and sink They have no choice these economists argue This material both natural and social determination of not simply their free will being an abstract philosophical postulate this is not being debated at all but of their psychic disposition and psychic ability to swim against the tide and disobey the commands of the market its logic is rejected by idealistic psychologist and historians like de Mause as a fiction as they defend and privilege the complete autonomy of our psychic life the dynamics of which may escape us while we being unconscious of them cannot escape them The hypothesis of the primacy of real material social forces is rejected in favor of a hypothesis stipulating the primacy of real psychic forces at work in all of us As is well known the scientific progress achieved in the late 19th and early 20th century resulted also in the serious discovery of and reflection on the human pre consciousness vorbewusstes or unconsciousness unbewusstes an advance in knowledge connected mainly with the name of Freud Later on group psychology and the study of group dynamics provided valuable new insights or corroborated insights held only intuitively in preceding centuries Insofar as the dominant class the bourgeoisie consists of often competing factions and groups group theory and the study of group dynamics can be of value to sociological research The absorption of peasants landless laborers and of parts of the petty bourgeoisie by an industrial working class the core of which had initially been formed by highly skilled artisans produced a stratified working class comprising technicians skilled workers ordinary semi skilled workers helpers temporary and day laborers etc Original class background and the socio cultural impregnation by the class that factions of the working class sprang from continued to affect consciousness even though the homogenizing effects of the new class situation thus of the factory and of daily contact and exchange of opinions with other workers must not be underrated Neither must we underrate the exposure of the working class to the thoughts and ideology of the dominant bloc or the ambiguous effect of permanent covert and open threats that the dominant class in a context of favorable relations of forces exerted and exerts on those forced to sell their labor The threat of wage cuts often has the psychological effect of increasing either militancy and group or class solidarity or fear and a tendency to show less solidarity with other workers de solidarization The focus of Freudian psychoanalysis on the individual as a member of the family embedded in the family s psychostructure including its psychic conflicts and in an authoritarian libido repressing society widened the original scope of Freud s theory Freud had already looked into the phenomenon of hysteria among combattants a psychic effect of traumas gr traumata suffered in wars The psychic causes of war and genocide became a primary concern of Lloyd de Mause De Mouse s approach was endebted to Freud and was strictly person centered and group centered the group being constituted by individuals it has been critiqued in so far as idealistic and individualistic This charge is not entirely unfounded as he rejected in fact research into material factors or contributing causes leading to wars and he also rejected an approach that was focusing on broad socio cultural and socio psychological forces that might co determine individuals In other words he rejected the assumption of Marx that Being determined Consciousness or Sartre s hypothesis that man is that determined human being which is capable to transcend its determination and act as a conscious historical agent in combination with others in order to change a situation that is already a historically produced and thus a determined one If de Mause derived the psychic disposition of men from pre natal and birth experience he anchored the psychic of course in the material in so far the charge of idealism is not wholly well founded It would be more to the point to say that he is blind to or rejects as secondary and to some extent irrelevant later material factors with the exception of child raising strategies thus factors relevant for psychic formation of the individual in early childhood De Mause s basic premis is that everything in society that exists is brought forth by the activity of individuals admittedly of consecutive generations of individuals and that we must seek to understand the motivation of the acts of individuals as a cause that must be further explained in terms of a preceding psychic history as their determining cause The one sideness of this approach that neglects the dialects between being and consciousness between material determining conditions and socially situated man capable of acting consciously with regard to these conditions is hard to overlook De Mauses s main and thus basic hypothesis that it is not early childhood which has a formative psychic effect on the psycho structure of men but the pre natal foetal and birth experience is well documented by ample material and therefore not easily discarded In his view this pre natal and birth experience undergone by all human beings is basically severely traumatic This is of curse debatable as a variety of pre natal experiences a broad spectrum so to

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  • War as a Group-Delusional Solution -----------------------
    go where he ll be safe 242 This resistance by Carter to the group fantasy demands to get tough and save national honor by letting in the Shah came from personal strengths and a determination not to involve America in war risks for trivial reasons In any case Carter remained strong for which he was called weak and continued to refuse to admit the Shah Yet the fact remained that the commands of the national will poured into the White House from all over America Get tough find us an enemy we can t stand the strangulation we can t stand hating you so much The group around Carter had no choice they had to lie to him to get his consent Despite consistent medical advice to Carter s staff that the Shah was in no immediate medical danger and that his medical problems could be easily taken care of elsewhere 244 Carter was told that the Shah was at the point of death and that he needed treatment which could only be obtained in New York Carter according to the report of one person present asked When the Iranians take our people in Teheran hostage what will you advise me then 245 and according to another that we would likely be faced with a situation where a group of fanatics grab Americans 246 Despite these clear dangers Carter agreed to let the Shah in There was only one crucial condition one important omission which accompanied his decision and this was obviously Carter s main contribution to the cave in to group fantasy the Americans in Teheran must remain unprotected As the New York Times reporter put it One option that curiously was never seriously examined was the evacuation of embassy personnel prior to admitting the Shah 247 The next day the Shah had his gall bladder removed in New York and nine days later exactly as predicted by everyone Iranian revolutionaries took the Americans hostage De Mause s analysis leads him to conclude that what was called the Iranian Crisis was not an external crisis at all but in fact the wished for and carefully manipulated solution to the earlier real crisis of collapse of group fantasy The rage against Carter was now split off and projected into the Ayatollah Khomeini and his jeering mobs of demonstrators who having found their own solution to the collapse of their revolutionary group fantasy were happy to contribute to America s humiliation by parading bound hostages before TV cameras and hanging Carter in effigy Instantly all collapse imagery disappeared from the American press As the New Yorker observed President Carter s rating of approval doubled during the crisis The public s sudden rush of affection for its country seems to have included its country s President 248 Carter was now transformed into a representative of every American fighting against the bestial humiliating enemy All of America projected their personal rages into the group delusional solution When I asked over 800 people who attended several speeches I gave during the first week of the crisis how they felt now most said It feels good we feel unified we can t be pushed around any longer it is good to be an American again my personal life and disappointments don t seem so important any more De Mause adds America felt good again One columnist put it bluntly In his article Why The Ayatollah Deserves Our Thanks he explained The Ayatollah and the street mobs that pass for government in that backward chaotic land have done this country a hell of a favor And I don t mean by practically guaranteeing the reelection of Jimmy Carter The Iranians contribution lies in prodding the United States into a renaissance of national pride and unity we feared had evaporated 250 Even when Russia invaded Afghanistan Americans could feel good about their strength Carter calling the Russian move the greatest threat to peace since the Second World War 251 could easily end detente begin the new Cold War and threaten military force in the Persian Gulf as though his earlier promises of military restraint were never made 252 With the adoption of the delusional solution the world made sense once more The mood of the nation at the beginning of 1980 was one of calm pride What s it like in Washington now Breathtaking Let s begin with President Carter Crisis everywhere He looks calm He invites in small groups of reporters and answers questions off the record with such low keyed candor that they find themselves in spite of themselves feeling protective Carter is an impressive figure Carter looks calm 253 According to de Mause it was a delusional solution to internal socio psychological problems affecting both the population and the population political leader relationship that was found when internal psychic insecurity and resulting rage were directed against the hetero image of the foreign foe De Mause relies on depth analytic terminology in interpreting a cartoon that allows him to sum up his conclusion The cartoon shows the delusional solution which produced this strength and calmness The ambivalent leader was now split into two parts The good leader now young strong and determined wrapped in a placental American flag and drawn in white is shown at the left The bad leader the Poisonous Placenta old foreign looking and drawn in black is shown at the right The price of the split squeezed in birth agony by the um bilical rope the two leaders pull between them is the sacrificial hostages These hostages were vitally necessary to the delusional solution As William F Buckley said the real danger was that they might be freed without violence But what if the Ayatollah merely frees the prisoners The public will be left with the sense of an unconsummated transaction We will be looking to Carter to see what form he elects for punishing the enduring government of Iran and here is the rub It is unlikely the hostages having been returned that the U S will want direct military action of the kind that results in death for men women and children 254 During the early months of 1980 the unconscious aim of American policy was to keep the hostages in captivity even to provoke their death as a cleansing sacrifice and as a punishment for our rage The Shah was officially escorted around to various military hospitals by Air Force planes infuriating the Iranians and the press constantly played up Carter s speeches of his readiness to use military force regardless of the consequences After the Shah finally left the U S Carter even wrote what the New York Times called an inexplicable letter to the Shah s sister asking him back saying Our preference now is that he receive treatment under Dr DeBakey s care either at Gorgas the U S hospital in Panama or in Houston Texas a move which was tantamount to a death sentence for the hostages We were certain Hamilton Jordan recalled later that if the Shah exercised his right to come back to the United States some of the hostages would be killed We had real warnings to that effect 256 John Waterford NOTES 1 Lloyd DeMause Foundations of Psychohistory http www psychohistory com 2 Rejecting a materialist Marxist approach to history but also the kind of sociological analysis typical of a Weberian approach or that of Talcott Parson s de Mause insists that history is the final receptacle for the repressed the final resting place for infantile traumata the group fantasy which at last reenacts and makes real that which we would most disown our own childhood Lloyd DeMause Foundations of Psychohistory p 116 In his view the notion of the environment causing major psychic and social change ignores deeper psychic experiences and dynamics that determine our motivation and the way we shape the environment by our praxis Ibidem p 125 In his view it is a holistic fallacy that the group exists as an entity over and beyond its individual constituents Ibidem p 133 Such an ideological assumption in fact amounts to hypostization Likewise our understanding of society of class etc amounts usually to a hypostasis De Mause also rejects a holistic concept of culture ibidem p 133 and critiques the fact that an anthropologist like Steward states that Personality is shaped by culture but it has never been shown that culture is affected by personality ibidem p 133 which latter hypothesis expresses exactly what de Mouse asserts Perhaps both refuse to see the dialectical interplay each one emphasizing one side of the coin De Mause admits however the effect of ways of child rearing on the individual psyche of the individual thus of a type of social praxis His rejection of the assumption that economic factors have a determining causative effect on human beings on their motivations praxis and thus history and his insistence that the psychic dynamics are the key to an understanding of what we do and why we do it becomes very apparent when he writes that hunting like war is the group fantasy men do while women gather the food which supports these religious activities Kill the Beast is mainly a game played for fetal and not for caloric motives whether it is acted out in a cave or in a forest Ibidem p 281 Interpreted in terms of worship of an animal soul which rules over the species and the forest hunting or killing the beast is displaced worship of a placental beast which nourishes threatens kills and gives birth to all living beings the group itself very much included whether it is represented as a bear spirit or as a Mistress of the Animals As Eliade points out killing this sacred animal is a ritual each time it is done Ibidem p 281 Though the assumption that the nutritional value of animals hunted is probably lower than the calories spent by hunting may not always have an empirical base he makes a strong point which underpins the hypothesis that the ritual or psychodynamic significance of hunting for the group is of primary importance If we transfer this argument to his understanding of the causes of war which also reflects his rejection of an economistic interpretation we are forced to admit that in all likelihood the material destruction of value houses factories infrastructure during World War II the war in Vietnam the wars on Iraq in Yugoslavia and Afghanistan and the cost in dollars of waging war outweighed subsequently realized or at least possible material gain by far Still public costs reckoned in terms of human lives lost and in dollars spent are balanced by the enrichment of the few which lets us emphasize the class nature of war in modern times It is also shortsighted to ignore the seductive effect on elites when they are told of large oil and gas deposits in Central Asia or large rare earth deposits in Afghanistan It can be shown that at least on the surface the pipeline through Afghanistan coveted by UNOCAL and the knowledge of large rare earth deposits in this country were real factors contributing to a desire to attack that country De Mouse would argue that what is visible on the surface hides the depth psychological group dynamics in a nation just like the manifest content or tagrest recounted by the analyzed patient hides the real significant of the dream 3 De Mause ibid p 304 4 Describing the process as a collapse of group fantasy that is a disastrous break down or deterioration of the collective auto image that the American masses had of themselves as a nation and of their elected leader which as a result makes the masses crave a war threatening crisis or a war that reconstitutes group identity again and which forces leaders previously seen as weak to project strength and determination de Mause detailed this by relying heavily on an analysis of the media Discussing the US auto image in the period leading up to the Tehran hostage crises de Mouse says that American confidence in him Carter rapidly declined throughout the first eight months of the year Time magazine s State of the Nation poll in April was headlined The Trouble Is Serious reporters began asking Carter at news conferences why he was exhibiting weakness and impotency George Will in Newsweek said Carter was now on a downward crumbling path as America s decline accelerates the Washington Star headlined America s SLIPPING TOWARD IMPOTENCE ACROSS THE GLOBE the New York Times one day carried two articles the first asking Carter to resign as the weakest and most incompetent president since Martin Van Buren and the second by a psychiatrist saying that Carter needed psychiatric treatment and a nationwide poll for the most out standing incompetent in history elected Carter hands down 228 Speculations about Carter s sanity multiplied one day when Carter simply delayed a speech he was to give to the press the unexplained cancellation caused worldwide speculation that Carter had gone bonkers and his appointments secretary had to assure newsmen that Carter was sane and in charge and knew what he was doing 229 DeMause ibid p 301 At present we notice that for more than a year already President Obama has been attacked by the media and political opponents as a weak president He was critiqued because of the way he handled the killing of CIA personnel in Benghazi and he was depicted as weak because he shunned open military intervention in the Syrian civil war In this context it is interesting that German public radio noted on July 19th 2014 one day after the news that a Malaysian airliner was shot down over Eastern Ukraine that the pressure in Obama to get tough is increasing Der druck auf Obama wird starker endlich harter zu werden This corresponds to the group dynamics described by de Mouse in periods leading up to wars It reflects the paranoia he notes and the pressure for delusional solutions APPENDIX Approval ratings of Kennedy decreased in the period leading up to the Cuban missile crisis but increased dramatically due to the stepped up crisis Go back to Art in Society 14 Contents An online version of Lloyd DeMause Foundations of Psychohistory is available via this URL http www psychohistory com So powerful is the derealization process of a group trance that I have never been able to find any nation anywhere in history going to war which bothered to estimate the number of dead and injured expected to result from their actions The dead are quite unreal to the planners who are operating out of their delusional trance During the Vietnam War for instance the Pentagon never once tried to make an accurate estimate of total civilian casualties even of the civilians we were supposed to be protecting When in 1966 a Harvard student asked Secretary of Defense McNamara who was famous as a real numbers whiz how many civilians had been killed in Vietnam he admitted he simply had no idea The function of dead people in the group trance state is to confirm the internal violence of the group delusion If for some reason not enough people are dying to match the internal fantasy something seems amiss As Nixon put it when the number of American casualties had dropped sharply toward the end of the Vietnamese War American casualty figures in Vietnam had been reaching new lows I knew that these reductions might be a ploy on the part of the Communists to make escalating the fighting that much more difficult for me 23 Lloyd DeMause Foundations of Psychohistory p 231 The study of cycles of violence in the history of nations is one just beginning to be developed but already many regularities are well established The latest research into the periodic upswing in the level of national violence that of Denton and Phillips 101 which is in turn based on original statistics covering the period 1480 1900 and collected by the pioneer of war studies Quincy Wright confirm previous country by country studies that there exists a 25 year cycle in major violence The 17 major American wars shown in the chart Illustration 9 covering a period of 365 years produce an average 21 year cycle somewhat more frequent than the world 25 year average Periods of peace in America have lasted from a minimum of four years at the end of the 18th century to a maximum of 34 years at the beginning of our history as colonies Still on the average once every 21 years just as each now generation reaches fighting age the young men of America have been thrown into the mouth of Moloch as sacrifices to the national need for group purification Lloyd DeMause Foundations of Psychohistory p 231 That major paranoid episodes precede wars and revolutions is a notion that is only now beginning to reach the edge of awareness among those historians who are opening their thinking to psychoanalytic influence The earliest of these historians Richard Hofstadter outlined over a decade ago what he termed The Paranoid Style in American Politics and he described how paranoid movements of suspicious discontent come in waves of different intensity throughout much of American history 102 Although Hofstadter only gave a few instances of these movements and did not tie them in to war and revolution his wry dissection of the repetitive use of typical paranoid imagery in political life is a good starting point for the psychohistorian studying the subject Lloyd DeMause Foundations of Psychohistory p 231 when George Forgie recently published his book Parricide in The House Divided A Psychological Interpretation of Lincoln and His Age 105 accurately depicting the American Civil War as a displaced fratricidal ritual in which the good brothers killed the bad brothers as scapegoats he thought he had discovered something unique to the period attributable to a special need to overthrow Founding Fathers rather than

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  • The Link Between Weakened Democratic Rights of the People and Increased Danger of War -----------
    insecurity connected with it has lead to increased xenophobia to hysteric concern about crime and public safety to louder calls for enforcement of law and order And it has given a boost to right wing and neo fascist tendencies in Europe and to the Tea Party in the U S These tendencies worry critical contemporaries because they remember how the ascent of the extreme right began in Europe in the 1920s and 30s and how quickly the German Nazi party for instance turned from the small politically insignificant marginal group with links to army officers and industrialists that it was in the 1920s into the strongest political party of the Weimar Republic People wonder what is in store in the U S or in the EU if the present trend towards the right a trend that is so general that it has also affected the British Labour Party and America s Centrist Democrats would follow the pattern observed in Germany between 1928 and 1933 The notion that history doesn t repeat itself is an old almost proverbial saying and overly or inappropriately quoting it can turn it into a cliché And the same may be true of that other dictum that history should it repeat itself may occur to us in the first instance as a tragedy while the repetition will turn out to be a mere farce Today the rise of extreme right wing xenophobic and neo fascist groups in some European countries where they now get 15 or in one country even 30 percent of the popular vote in national elections may well amount to no more than a farce The much wider popular support of a very very nationalist government in Hungary may indicate however in what direction general sentiment in Europe is moving under the influence of the economic situation It need not be a neo fascist government it might also be a respectable government in league with the corporations that would further shrink what is left of democracy In the US researchers are coming to the conclusion that we must face the fact that the people have been deprived already of their decision on all matters through their elected representatives because these representatives do no longer listen to the voice of the people if they ever did in our lifetime Of course we cling to the hope that we still can change the course of history by relying on the ballot box the right to vote the right to run for office And of course Hemingway was right in 1935 when he pointed out that openly authoritarian regimes regimes run by one man at the top are more likely to steer a belligerent course But aren t elections focused on two competing candidates today Focused on a man or a woman who appears like a star rather than on issues Isn t presidential democracy in the US highly personalized Isn t the power of the executive vaster than ever and are not parliaments especially in

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  • The Servants of the People - Eager to Control Crowds -------------------
    details of the 17 people who have been killing in Northern Ireland by members of the security forces who were using rubber or plastic bullets also referred to as baton rounds The list is in chronological order Eight of the 17 killed were children All but one of those killed were Catholics Rowntree Francis 22 April 1972 11 Catholic Status Civilian Civ Killed by British Army BA Shot by rubber bullet Divis Flats Belfast Molloy Tobias 16 July 1972 18 Catholic Status Irish Republican Army Youth Section IRAF Killed by British Army BA Shot by rubber bullet during street disturbances outside Lifford Road British Army BA base Strabane County Tyrone Friel Thomas 22 May 1973 21 Catholic Status Civilian Civ Killed by British Army BA Died five days after being hit by rubber bullet during street disturbances Creggan Heights Creggan Derry Geddis Stephen 30 August 1975 10 Catholic Status Civilian Civ Killed by British Army BA Died two days after being hit by plastic bullet Divis Flats Belfast Stewart Brian 10 October 1976 13 Catholic Status Civilian Civ Killed by British Army BA Died six days after being hit by plastic bullet near his home Norglen Road Turf Lodge Belfast Donnelly Michael 09 August 1980 21 Catholic Status Civilian Civ Killed by British Army BA Shot by plastic bullet at the junction of Leeson Street and Falls Road Belfast Whitters Paul 25 April 1981 15 Catholic Status Civilian Civ Killed by Royal Ulster Constabulary RUC Died 10 days after being shot by plastic bullet Great James Street Derry Livingstone Julie 13 May 1981 14 Catholic Status Civilian Civ Killed by British Army BA Shot by plastic bullet while walking along Stewartstown Road Suffolk Belfast Duffy Henry 22 May 1981 45 Catholic Status Civilian Civ Killed by British Army BA Shot by plastic bullet while walking along street Bogside Derry Kelly Carol Anne 22 May 1981 12 Catholic Status Civilian Civ Killed by British Army BA Died three days after being shot by plastic bullet while walking along Cherry Park Twinbrook Belfast McCabe Nora 09 July 1981 30 Catholic Status Civilian Civ Killed by Royal Ulster Constabulary RUC Died one day after being shot by plastic bullet Linden Street Lower Falls Belfast Doherty Peter 31 July 1981 36 Catholic Status Civilian Civ Killed by British Army BA Shot by plastic bullet at his home Divis Flats Belfast McGuinness Peter 09 August 1981 41 Catholic Status Civilian Civ Killed by Royal Ulster Constabulary RUC Shot by plastic bullet outside his home Shore Road Greencastle Belfast McConomy Stephen 19 April 1982 11 Catholic Status Civilian Civ Killed by British Army BA Died three days after being shot by plastic bullet Fahan Street Bogside Derry Downes Sean 12 August 1984 22 Catholic Status Civilian Civ Killed by Royal Ulster Constabulary RUC Shot by plastic bullet during anti internment march Andersonstown Road Belfast White Keith 14 April 1986 20 Protestant Status Civilian Civ Killed by Royal Ulster Constabulary RUC Died 15 days after being shot

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